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APA Style (7th ed.)

Article or Report

Basic structure for an article: 

 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article in non-italics: Capital letter also for subtitle. Journal Title in Italics, volume#(issue#), pg#-pg#. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx

 

You can leave out any parts that you don't have, like a DOI, the volume, issue, or page numbers.

Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 

Online or Print, With DOI Online or Print, No DOI
Two Authors Magazine
Three to Twenty Authors Newspaper
Report No Author, Volume, or Issue # 
Conference Session  

Online or Print, with DOI (p. 316+ in Manual)

On all article citations, whether you read online or print, include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available.  The DOI is like a digital thumbprint: its unique and permanent numbers and letters help identify it. It is typically on the first or last page of the article. It may also be listed in the CrossRef Database. If you are having trouble finding the DOI, ask a librarian.  If there is no DOI, see this example

Note that as of March 2017, CrossRef and APA both recommend that DOIs be formatted as such: https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxx with no period at the end.  

General format: author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics journal title comma volume number non italics open parenthesis issue number close parenthesis comma page numbers period digital object identifier or D O I Example: Bueger comma C period open parenthesis 2013 close parenthesis period Practice comma pirates comma and Coast Guards colon The grand narrative of Somali piracy period in italics Third World Quarterly comma 34 non italics open parenthesis 10 close parenthesis comma 1811 hyphen 1827 period https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 1080 forward slash 01436597 period  2013 period 851896

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  The Coast Guard narrative provides meaning to the practice of modern day piracy (Bueger, 2013).

Narrative Citation: According to Bueger (2013) the coast guard narrative can be treated as a "meaningful fiction which gives coherence to the practice of piracy" (p. 1824). 


 

Two Authors

List both authors in the order they appear in the article. Use an ampersand (&) rather than "and" between the author names.

General format: First author last name comma first initials period comma ampersand second author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics journal title comma volume number non italics open parenthesis issue number close parenthesis comma page number period digital object identifier or D O I Example: Cachon comma G period P period comma ampersand Swinney comma R period open parenthesis 2011 close parenthesis period The value of fast fashion colon Quick response comma enhanced design comma and strategic consumer behavior period in italics Management Science comma 57 non italics open parenthesis 4 close parenthesis comma 778 hyphen 795 period https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 1287 forward slash mnsc period 1100 period 1303

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: In the fast fashion business model, retailers use enhanced design and quick response to complement each other (Cachon & Swinney, 2005).

Narrative Citation: Cachon & Swinney (2005) explain how enhanced design and quick response complement each other in the fast fashion retail model. 


 

Three or more authors 

List each author in the order they appear in the article. Use an ampersand (&) rather than "and" between the last two.

If you have more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author (so there is a total of 20 names in the citation). 

General format: First author last name comma first initials period comma second author last name comma first initials period ampersand third author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics journal title comma volume number non italics open parenthesis issue number close parenthesis comma page number period digital object identifier or D O I Example: Wenneker comma C period P period J period comma Wigboldus comma D period H period J period comma ampersand Spears comma R period open parenthesis 2005 close parenthesis period Biased language use in stereotype maintenance colon The role of encoding and goals period in italcis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology comma 89 non italics open parenthesis 4 close parenthesis comma 504 hyphen 516 period https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 1037 forward slash 0022 hyphen 3514 period 89 period 4 period 504

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Group membership may determine the bias of language used by an individual describing a specific event (Wenneker et al., 2005).

Narrative Citation: According to Wenneker et al., (2005) an individual's group membership may determine the bias of language used to describe a specific event.


 

Report (see p. 329-330 in Manual)

After the report title, include any report number if available and the Source, which can be thought of like the Publisher of a book.

Group Author or Government Report (see p. 329-330 in Manual)

In governmental reports, you can have multiple "levels," or offices/departments, in the Source element, separated by a comma.

The Author is the office that was most directly responsible for creating the content, and any parent offices are the Source. If you aren't sure which office created the content, look on Google or on their general webpage to figure out the structure -- which office is "under" another office?

General format: Group author period open pathesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics report title non italics open parenthesis report number close parenthesis period parent agency or agencies as source period freely accessible URL Example: Police Executive Research Forum period open parenthesis 2020 comma May 11 close parenthesis period in italics Drones colon A report on the use of drones by public safety agencies dash and a wake hyphen up call about the threat of malicious drone attacks non italics open parenthesis Publication No period COPS hyphen W0894 close parenthesis period Office of Community Oriented Policing Services comma U period S period Department of Justice period https colon forward slash forward slash cops period usdoj period gov forward slash RIC forward slash Publications forward slash cops hyphen w0894 hyphen pub period pdf

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Law enforcement agencies have started to increase the use of drones since 2016 for a variety of purposes (Police Executive Research Forum, 2020).

Narrative Citation: According to the Police Executive Research Forum (2020), law enforcement agencies have been using drones for a variety of purposes such as search and rescue, crime scene reconstruction, and disaster response.



Named Author 

General format: Author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics report title non italics open parenthesis report number close parenthesis period parent agency or agencies as source period freely accessible URL Example: McKenzie comma D period open parenthesis 2009 close parenthesis period in italics Impact assessments in finance and private sector development colon What have we learned and what should we learn question mark non italics open parenthesis Policy Research Working Paper 4944 close parenthesis period The World Bank period https colon forward slash forward slash openknowledge period worldbank period org forward slash bitstream forward slash handle forward slash 10986 forward slash 4137 forward slash WPS4944 period pdf

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  A large share of the manufacturing labor force in certain developing countries consists of self-employed individuals (McKenzie, 2009).

Narrative Citation: McKenzie (2009) states that "Self-employment accounts for a large share of the labor force in most developing
countries" (p.211).


 

Online or Print, no DOI  (p. 317 in Manual)

Italicize the journal title and volume number, but not the issue number in parentheses. 

    General format: Author last name comma first initials open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics journal title comma volume number non italics open parenthesis issue number close parenthesis comma page number period Example: Aparicio comma F period R period open parenthesis 1999 close parenthesis  Reading the  open quotations Latino close quotations  in Latino studies colon Toward re hyphen imagining our academic location period in italics Discourse comma 21 non italics open parenthesis 3 close parenthesis comma 3 hyphen 18 period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The limited academic presence of Latino scholars has led to non-Latino administrators and colleagues having a greater impact on Latino Studies programs (Aparicio, 1999).

Narrative Citation: According to Aparicio (1999), the limited academic presence of Latino scholars translates to non-Latino administrators and colleagues having a greater impact on Latino Studies programs.


 

Magazine (p. 320 in Manual)

Online with no DOI

Include the stable URL. Page numbers, volume, and issue may be omitted if not available. 

General format: author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics magazine title period freely accessible URL Example: Greenberg comma A period open parenthesis 2020 comma May 12 close parenthesis period The confessions of Marcus Hutchins comma the hacker who saved the internet period in italics Wired period non italics . https colon forward slash forward slash www period wired period com forward slash story forward slash confessions hyphen marcus hyphen hutchins hyphen hacker hyphen who hyphen saved hyphen the hyphen interne forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Marcus Hutchins was lauded as the hacker who saved the internet for his work in stopping the WannaCry cyber security attack (Greenberg, 2020).

Narrative Citation: Greenberg (2020) outlined Marcus Hutchins journey from creating malware to being lauded as the hacker who saved the internet.


Print or from a Database with no DOI

Italicize the magazine title and volume number, but not the issue number in parentheses.  If a magazine has a month and/or date, you may include that.

General Format: Author last name comma first initial period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics Magazine title comma volume number non italics open parenthesis issue number close parenthesis comma page number period  Example: Rodgers comma J period E period open parenthesis 2009 comma January forward slash February close parenthesis period Guinea pig nation period in italics Psychology Today comma 42 non italics open parenthesis 1 close parenthesis comma 84 hyphen 91 period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Approximately 20 million Americans have been recruited for clinical trials each year (Rodgers, 2009).

Narrative Citation: Rodgers (2009) estimates that approximately 20 million Americans have been recruited for clinical trials each year. 


 

Newspaper (p. 320 in Manual)

Online with no DOI

Include the stable URL. Page numbers, volume, and issue may be omitted if not available. 

General format: author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics newspaper title period freely accessible URL Example: Hu comma W period open parenthesis 2009 comma September 11 close parenthesis period Foreign languages fall as schools look for cuts period in italics The New York Times period non italics https colon forward slash forward slash www period nytimes period com forward slash 2009 forward slash 09 forward slash 13 forward slash education forward slash 13language period html

  • Use this format for articles from both print newspapers as well as newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.
  • Use the format for websites for citing articles from a news website. Common examples are BBC News, BET News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Foreign language instruction supporters would prefer the integration of lessons into the core curriculum thus preventing their easy removal during budget cuts (Hu, 2009).

Narrative Citation: Hu (2009) reports that supporters of foreign language instruction would prefer lessons be integrated into the core curriculum to prevent their easy removal during budget cuts. 


Print or from a Database with no DOI 

If an article appears on discontinuous pages, list each of the page numbers where it appears. For multiple pages, use "pp." Most newspapers have a month and/or date, so include that.

General format: author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title  period in italics newspaper title period  Example: Fidlin comma D period open parenthesis 2023 comma December 21 close parenthesis period Police Chief to send letter on migrant crisis period in italics  Whitewater Register period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The recent migrant crisis has caused the police chief to reach out to state and federal elected officials for financial support (Fidlin, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to Fidlin (2023) the police chief has reached out to state and federal elected officials for financial support to aid in the recent migrant crisis.


 

No Author, Volume, or Issue Number 

Remember that APA encourages researchers to use the name of a corporate author, a governmental organization, an office, a department, etc. as the author (see an example like this).

However, if no author can be found, as is sometimes the case with newspaper and magazine articles, begin the citation with the title of the article. 

Online

General format: Article title in place of author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics newspaper title period non italics freely accessible URL Example: How Globe and Mail reporters traced the rise of fentanyl period open parenthesis 2016 comma April 8 close parenthesis period in italics The Globe and Mail period non italics https colon forward slash forward slash www period theglobeandmail period com forward slash news forward slash investigations forward slash how hyphen globe hyphen and hyphen mail hyphen reporters hyphen traced hyphen the hyphen rise hyphen of hyphen fentanyl forward slash article29569921 forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Close to three hundred deaths reported in Alberta in 2015 have been connected to illicit fentanyl (How Globe and Mail reporters traced the rise of fentanyl, 2016).

Narrative Citation: According to the article, How Globe and Mail reporters traced the rise of fentanyl (2015) close to three hundred deaths reported in Alberta in 2015 have been connected to illicit fentanyl. 


Print

General format: Article title in place of author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics newspaper title period Example: In the US comm Hmong New Year recalls ancestral spirits while teaching traditions to new generations period open parenthesis 2023 comma November 27 close parenthesis period in italics The Korea Herald period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  The Hmong in Minnesota have continued their cultural traditions such as celebrating the Hmong New Year in spite of  expatriation (In the US, Hmong New Year, 2023).

Note: Shorten the title for the in-text citation if it is too long. 


 

Conference Session

General format: Author last name comma first initials open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title of conference session non italics open bracket contribution type close bracket period conference name comma conference location period friendly URL Example: Fistek comma A period comma Jester comma E period comma ampersand  Sonnenberg comma K period open parenthesis 2017 comma July 12 hyphen 15 close parenthesis period in italics Everybody’s got a little music in them colon Using music therapy to connect comma engage comma and motivate non italics open bracket Conference session close bracket period Autism Society National Conference comma Milwaukee comma WI comma United States period https colon forward slash forward slash asa period confex period com forward slash asa forward slash 2017 forward slash webprogramarchives forward slash Session9517 period html


In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Music therapy is a good way for teachers to help engage their students in the classroom (Fistek et al., 2017).

Narrative Citation: Fistek et al. (2017) argue that music therapy is a good way for teachers to help their students in the classroom. 

More questions? Check out the authoritative source: APA style blog