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APA Style (7th ed.)

Webpages

 

Basic structure for a webpage: 

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of webpage (Publication No. XXX). Source or overall website. https://www.someurl.com/full/address

 

You will need to modify the above based on any parts that you don't have, like a date or a publication number, or add parts that you need, such as a Retrieved from ... date only if the content is designed to change and is unarchived. Web sources vary widely.

If you are missing a lot of the above citation information, be careful about using the source -- sometimes this is a warning sign that this web source is not very high-quality. Look closely for other signs of credible websites. But sometimes it is still all right to use. 

Here are some tips for how to cite webpages when information is missing

Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 

Webpage No Author, No Date
Corporate / Group Author Blog
Social Media Unarchived Pages

Webpage (p. 350 in Manual)

Normally, do NOT include the retrieval date. The only exception is for content that is unarchived, has no date, and is easily or frequently changed (e.g., transitory forms of social media, live-update type of web content).

General format: Author last name comma first initial period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics webpage title period or punctuation non italics source period webpage U R L Example description: Goddard comma I period open parenthesis 2023 comma October 12 close parenthesis period in italics What does friendship look like in America question mark Pew Research Center period https colon forward slash forward slash www period pewresearch period org forward slash short hyphen reads forward slash 2023 forward slash 10 forward slash 12 forward slash what hyphen does hyphen friendship hyphen look hyphen like hyphen in hyphen america forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: A Majority of adults in the United States are more likely to talk about their work and family than about mental health with their friends (Goddard, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According Goddard (2023), a majority of adults in the United States are more likely to talk about their work and family than about mental health with their friends.


No Author or No Date (p. 352 in Manual)

Remember that APA encourages researchers to use the name of a corporate author, a governmental organization, an office, a department, etc. as the author (see example directly below).

However, if no author can be found, begin the citation with the title of the Webpage. 

If no date can be found, you can use n.d. for the date. You may need to include a retrieval date -- see more here.

Other missing information? View this page from APA, Missing reference information

General format: In italics webpage title period non italics open parenthesis date close parenthesis period source period webpage U R L Example description: in italics Collection development policy period non italics open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period  Project Gutenberg period  https colon forward slash forward slash dev period gutenberg period org forward slash policy forward slash collection underscore development period html

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Project Gutenberg only ebooks which are in the public domain (Collection Development Policy, n.d).

Narrative Citation: The Collection Development Policy (n.d.) states that Project Gutenberg only accepts ebooks which are only in the public domain.


Corporate or Group Author 

Author same as the Source

It is more common to see a corporate author who is also the publisher of the webpage. In such cases, leave out the Source or Publisher element if it is virtually the same as the Author. 

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics webpage title period non italics webpage U R L Example description: U period S period Department of Homeland Security period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Surge capacity force non italics period https colon forward slash forward slash www period dhs period gov forward slash surge hyphen capacity hyphen force

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Surge Capacity Force consists of federal employees who volunteer to support FEMA during a catastrophic disaster (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (n.d.), the Surge Capacity Force consists of federal employees who volunteer to support FEMA during a catastrophic disaster.


Corporate office, organization, or government agency as an author 

Often for governmental sources, you will have multiple "layers" of offices in the Source / Publisher position, separated by a comma. The most immediate office responsible for writing the content is the Author, and the parent offices are the Source. 

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis date close parenthesis period in italics webpage title period non italics source period webpage U R L Example description: United Nations Population Division period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Family planning period non italics United Nations period  https colon forward slash forward slash www period un period org forward slash development forward slash desa forward slash pd forward slash content forward slash family hyphen planning hyphen 0

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Data on family planning practices, and contraceptives are important to comprehending regional and global fertility levels (United Nations Population Division, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: The United Nations Population Division (n.d.) states that data on family planning practices and contraceptives are important to comprehending regional and global fertility levels.


Blog (p. 320 in Manual)

Blogs are treated more like periodicals than websites, which is why the blog title is italicized, the same as a journal or magazine article, rather than following the other web page citations on this page.

If you can find no author's name, use the screen name. Use the year, month, and day for the date of publication.

General format: Author last name comma first initial period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period blog post title period in italics blog title period non italics freely accessible U R L Example description: Kratz comma J period open parenthesis 2023 comma October 31 close parenthesis period  Manuel Quezon and the push for Philippine independence period in italics. Pieces of History non italics https colon forward slash forward slash prologue period blogs period archives period gov forward slash 2023 forward slash 10 forward slash 31 forward slash manuel  hyphen quezon hyphen and  hyphen the hyphen push  hyphen for  hyphen philippine hyphen independence forward slash

Parenthetical Citation: Manuel Quezon helped author a key piece of legislation called the Jones Act which started the Philippines on the path to self-governance (Kratz, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to Krazt (2023), Manuel Quezon helped author a key piece of legislation called the Jones Act which started the Philippines on the path to self-governance .


Social Media 

Facebook post (see more on Facebook citations here)

General format: Individual or group author period open parenthesis posting date close parenthesis period in italics the first twenty words of post as title non italics open bracket description of audiovisual or shared content close bracket space open bracket description of post close bracket period source period freely accessible URL Example description: TED hyphen Ed period open parenthesis 2024 comma January 15 close parenthesis period in italics Today we celebrate a man and his dream as we continue to work towards a more equal society period Revisit Martin non italics open bracket Image with link attached close bracket open bracket Status update close bracket period  Facebook period https colon forward slash forward slash www period facebook period com forward slash TEDEducation forward slash posts forward slash 923020199396271

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Dr. Martin Luther King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is a seminal text of the Civil Rights Movement. (TED-Ed, 2024).

Narrative Citation: According to TED-Ed (2024), Dr. Martin Luther King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is a seminal text of the Civil Rights Movement.


X (formerly Twitter) post (see more on X citations here)

General format: Individual or group author open bracket x or twitter handle close bracket period open parenthesis posting date close parenthesis period in italics first twenty words of post as title non italics open bracket description of audiovisual or shared content close bracket open bracket description of content close bracket period source period freely accessible URL Example description: NASA Earth open bracket at symbol NASAEarth close bracket period open parenthesis 2024 comma January 12 close parenthesis period in italics 2023 was the hottest in at symbol NASA apostrophe s record by a large margin comma continuing a long hyphen term warming trend caused by human non italics open bracket Video attached close bracket open bracket Post close bracket period  X period  https colon forward slash forward slash twitter period com forward slash NASAEarth forward slash status forward slash 1745839995577860267

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Anthropogenic pollution has resulted in 2023 being the hottest year on record (NASA Earth, 2024).

Narrative Citation: According to NASA Earth (2024), anthropogenic pollution has resulted in 2023 being the hottest year on record.


LinkedIn profile (see more on LinkedIn citations here)

General format: Individual or group author period open parenthesis date close parenthesis period In italics profile page title non italics open bracket description close bracket period source period retrieval date comma from freely accessible URL Example description: Museum of the Future period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Home non italics open bracket LinkedIn page close bracket period LinkedIn period Retrieved January 16 comma 2024 comma from https colon forward slash forward slash www period linkedin period com forward slash company forward slash motf forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The UAE has provided the world with a space where new ideas, and talent can be nurtured (Museum of the Future, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to the Museum of the Future (n.d.), the UAE has provided the world with a space where new ideas and talent can be nurtured.


Unarchived Pages, Frequently Changed, and No Archival System (see more)

Only if a source meets all three of these criteria would you use the Retrieved from date as part of your citation. 

General format: Webpage author period open parenthesis n period d period for no date close parenthesis period in italics webpage title period non italics retrieval date from webpage URL Example description: Worldometer period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Water used this year open parenthesis million of liters close parenthesis period  Retrieved January 17 comma 2024 from https colon forward slash forward slash www period worldometers period info forward slash water forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: In just the first three weeks of 2024, over 210 trillion liters of water was used globally (Worldometer, n.d).

Narrative Citation: According to Worldometer (n.d.), in just the first three weeks of 2024, over 210 trillion liters of water was used globally.


More questions? Check out the authoritative source: APA style blog