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APA Style (7th ed.)

Multimedia

Basic structure for a standalone multimedia work: 

 

Author, A. A. or Director, A. A. (year, month day). Title of work [Description]. Production Company or Label. https://www.someurl.com/full/address

You will need to modify the above based on any parts that you don't have, like an exact date or a label name, or add parts that you need. Media sources vary widely, especially in who is considered the author. Use this table from p. 341 of the Manual to identify the author:

Media Type Include as Author
Film Director
TV series Executive producer(s)
TV series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast  Host or executive producer
Podcast episode     Host of episode
Webinar     Instructor
Classical music album or song    Composer
Classical music album or song     Recording artist
Artwork     Artist
Online streaming video     Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph     Photographer
Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 
Film and Video Streaming Video Music
Image  Podcasts or Vodcasts  TV Episode
Online Map

Film and Video (p. 342+ in Manual)

Note: APA does not require format of the film to be specified in the reference, e.g. DVD, streaming, or in a movie theater. Provide information about the format viewed only if the version referenced includes special features (APA p.343).


General format: Author’s last name comma first initials period open parenthesis role of author close parenthesis period. space open parentheses release year close parenthesis in italics title of the film  non italics open bracket media type semi colon format close bracket period production company or companies Example description: Lawrence comma F period open parenthesis Director close parenthesis period open parenthesis 2014 close parenthesis period in italics The hunger games colon Mockingjay comma part I non italics open bracket Film semicolon DVD close bracket period Lionsgate semicolon Color Force period

In-text Citations

Parenthetical Citation: “Proceed in an orderly fashion to your nearest stairs and descend to level 40,” illustrates ableism in the architecture of District 13's bunkers (Lawrence, 2014).

Narrative Citation: Mockingjay—Part 1 (Lawrence, 2014) invites us to be appalled at the idea of children fighting to the death, while at the same time inviting us to be riveted to a screen showing us just that.


 

Streaming Video, Subscription

Subscription database of video production companies, not freely available through other sources (p. 342 in Manual; see also APA Style Blog

Note: Films on Demand and Docuseek will not appear in references as they are providers and do not produce content. 

Main contributor as author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis role of contributor close parentheses period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics video title period non italics Open brackets media type close brackets period publisher or database title period Example description: Arredondo comma P period open parenthesis Commentator close parenthesis period open parenthesis 2018 close parenthesis period in italics Culturally sensitive counseling with Latinos non italics open bracket Video close bracket period Psychotherapy period net period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The counselor needs to take into account that Latinos may consider themselves bicultural (Arredondo, 2018).

Narrative Citation: Arredondo states, “It’s absolutely primal - the family system” (2018, 1:12:05).
 

Streaming Video, Freely Available 

Freely available streaming video -- YouTube, TED Talks, Vimeo, etc. (p. 344 in Manual and APA Style Blog)
 

General format: Person or group responsible for upload period open parenthesis upload date close parenthesis period in italics video title non italics open bracket media type close bracket period streaming platform period U R L Example example description: Smithsonian Channel period open parenthesis 2017 comma June 9 close parenthesis period in italics Why Pocahontas may not have rescued John Smith after all  non italics open bracket Video close bracket period  YouTube period https colon forward slash forward slash www period youtube period com forward slash watch question mark v equal symbol CXvqTzGX3eI

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Since John Smith wrote the 1624 book recounting his tale after the principal characters were dead, only his perspective remains (Smithsonian, 2017).

Narrative Citation: The Smithsonian’s production casts doubts on the role of Pocahontas in Smith’s rescue (2017)


 

Music (see p. 344-345 in the Manual)

Entire Album 

Note: The year(s) of the original composition are only necessary if different than the release date.


General format: composer last name comma first initials open parenthesis release date close parenthesis in italics album title non italics open bracket media type and recording artist close bracket period record label period open parentheses year or years of original composition Example description: Maraire comma D period open parenthesis 1992 close parenthesis period in italics Pieces of Africa non italics open bracket Album recorded by Kronos Quartet close bracket period  Elektra Nonesuch period open parenthesis Original works published 1989 hyphen 1991 close parenthesis

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Pieces of Africa include the basic ensemble of two violins, viola, and cello complemented by an exotic array of African instruments (Maraire, 1989-1991/1992).

Narrative Citation:  Abraham Dumisani Maraire (1989-1991/1992) brought together Western and African string instruments.
 

Single Song or Track

Notes: The year(s) of original composition, are only necessary if different than the release date. 
Omit the recording artist if same as the composer and include only [Song] in the media type.
Include a URL "if that location is the only means of retrieval” (p. 345).
 

General format: Composer last name comma  first initials open parenthesis recording date close parenthesis song title Open Bracket media type and recording artist close bracket period on in italics album title period non italics record label or production company period open parenthesis year of original composition close parenthesis Example description: Johnson comma J period W period open parenthesis 2019 close parentheses period  Lift every voice and sing  open bracket Song recorded by SistaStrings close bracket period  On in italics Lift period non italics Magik Family Records period open parenthesis Original work published 1900 close parenthesis

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: SistaStrings recorded the anthem “Lift Every Voice and Sing” (Johnson, 1900/2019).

Narrative Citation:  SistaStrings recorded their rendition of the poem by James Weldon Johnson (1900/2019) .


 

Images (see p. 346-347 in the Manual)

see also APA Style Blog, Creative Commons Best Practices for Attribution, and About CC Licenses
Notes: 

  • Use the following models to cite images. To reproduce artwork, infographics, or photographs, “permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference”(p. 347).
  • “No citation [...] or attribution is necessary for clip art from programs like Microsoft Word…”(APA, p. 346).
  • When possible, use images with Creative Commons licenses or images that specify "no attribution is required" for simplicity.

Clip art or stock images, attribution required 

 

General format: Creator last name comma first initials period  open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis in italics title or description of image non italics Open Bracket media type close bracket period title of image repository period U R L Example description: Everett comma V period open parenthesis 2006 close parenthesis period in italics Can of worms anyone non italics open bracket Photograph close bracket period  Flickr period https colon forward slash forward slash flic period kr forward slash p forward slash hu2i1

Attribution (instead of in-text citation)

The copyright attribution is used instead of an in-text citation (See APA Style Blog

General format: text above image: Figure number in italics title. Text below image: in italics the word note  colon  title or description of image non italics open bracket media type close bracket period by creator period publication date period image repository open parenthesis URL close parenthesis  creative commons licesne period Example description: Text above image: Figure 1 in italics can of worms. Text below image: in italics note colon can of worms anyone non italics open bracket photograph close bracket period  by Valerie Everett period 2006 period Flickr open parenthesis https colon forward slash forward slash flic period kr forward slash p forward slash hu2i1 close parenthesis period  CC BY hyphen SA 2 period 0 period


Clip art or stock images, no attribution require

Notes:

If the image states that no attribution is required, then do not provide a reference entry, in-text citation, or attribution statement.

Sources for attribution-free images

General format: text above image Figure number in italics  title  Example description: text above image Figure 1 in italics scrum board

From a collection or museum, physical or online

Notes: If from a subscription database such as ArtStor, it is not necessary to indicate the database name. Use the physical location of the work of art in the reference. See also APA Style Blog.) 

General format: Artist name period open parentheses publication date close parenthesis period in italics title or description of image non italics open bracket media type close bracket period museum comma location period U R L Example description: Grandma Moses period open parenthesis 1946 close parenthesis period in italics Grandma Moses goes to the big city non italics open bracket Painting close bracket period Smithsonian American Art Museum comma Washington comma DC comma United States period https colon  forward slash forward slash www period si period edu forward slash sites forward slash default forward slash files forward slash blog forward slash granda underscore moses period jpg

In-text citations

Parenthetical Citation: The shining city is seen in the distance in the painting “Grandma Moses Goes to the Big City” (Grandma Moses, 1946).
Narrative Citation:  The excitement of leaving the farm to visit the city is tangible in Grandma Moses’ painting (1946).


 

Podcasts (see p. 345 in the Manual)

 

General format: Podcast host as author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis author description or role close parenthesis period open parenthesis broadcast date close parenthesis period episode title open parenthesis episode number close parenthesis open bracket media type close bracket period in in italics podcast title period non italics production company period U R L  Example description: Sloan comma N period ampersand Harding comma C period open parenthesis Hosts close parenthesis period open parenthesis 2023 comma October 24 close parenthesis period  Mitski tops the TikTok chart open parenthesis No period 336 close parenthesis open bracket Audio podcast episode close bracket period  In in italics Switched on pop period non italics  Rock Ridge Productions period https colon forward slash forward slash switchedonpop period com forward slash episodes forward slash chartbreakers hyphen mitski hyphen tiktok hyphen chart

In-text citations

Parenthetical Citation: Mitski’s use of a pedal steel guitar is described as dreamy and lachrymose (Sloan & Harding, 2023).

Narrative Citation: Sloan & Harding (2023) don’t generally expect soft and introspective songs to be chart breakers on TikTok.


 

TV Episode (see p. 343 in the Manual)

 

General format: Contributor as author last name first initials period open parenthesis role of contributor close parenthesis period open parenthesis first aired date close parenthesis period episode title open parenthesis season comma episode close parenthesis open bracket media type close bracket period in series producer first initials last name open parenthesis producer role close parenthesis comma in italics series title period production company period Example description: Bicks comma M period open parenthesis Writer ampersand Director close parenthesis ampersand Lee Strachan comma A period open parenthesis Writer ampersand Director close parenthesis period open parenthesis 2023 comma May 17 close parenthesis period  Your brain colon Perception deception open parenthesis Season 50 comma Episode 9 close parenthesis open bracket TV series episode close bracket period In J period Cort ampersand C period Schmidt open parenthesis Executive Producers close parenthesis comma Nova period WGBH Educational Foundation period

In-text citations

Parenthetical Citation: There is often disagreement between “objective reality” and “subjective perception” (Bicks & Strachan, 2023).
Narrative Citation: Bricks & Strachan (2023) define and distinguish between “objective reality” and “subjective perception.” 


 

Online Maps

General format: Author or agencies period open parenthesis most recently updated date close parenthesis period in italics map title non italics open bracket media type close bracket period source  period U R L Example description: U period S period Forest Service semicolon U period S period Department of Agriculture period open parenthesis 2022 comma August 25 close parenthesis period in italics FSTopo tiled basemap ArcGIS online web map  non italics open bracket Map close bracket period U period S period Forest Service Geospatial Data Discovery period https colon forward slash forward slash data hyphen usfs period hub period arcgis period com forward slash documents forward slash 3940863e4d8e4176a3e084b9db16b2c0 forward slash explore

In-text citations


Parenthetical Citation: (U.S. Forest Service & U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2022) 

Narrative Citation: The U.S. Forest Service and Department of Agriculture (2022)
 

Dynamically created maps (e.g. Google Maps, Apple Maps) p. 347 in Manual


General format: Map service period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period open bracket map description close bracket period retrieval date comma from shareable U R L Example description: Google. Open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period open bracket Google Maps directions for driving from Whitewater comma WI comma to the Bad River Reservation comma Sanborn comma WI close bracket period Retrieved January 12 comma 2024 comma from https colon forward slash forward slash maps period app period goo period gl forward slash doCMnjTrf6HtVL1P8

In-text citations

Parenthetical Citation: The drive from Whitewater to the destination will take between five and six hours (Google, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to Google (n.d.) it will take about five and a half hours to drive to the destination.