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APA Style (7th ed.)

Business Sources

Basic structure for most business databases: 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of page in italics (Number if available) [Descriptive text if needed]. Database name. https://www.databasehomepage.com

Many business sources contain tables, charts, data sets, and other non-standard types of information. General guidelines:

  • If no author, use a corporate author (e.g. company, association, or group responsible for the content).
  • If no publication date, use the abbreviation (n.d.) -- both in your References and your in-text citation -- for "no date."
  • Retrieval dates are only needed in two circumstances: if the content is unarchived AND is designed to change (e.g. financial data updated quarterly or yearly).
  • If the information is from a free website (such as a .gov website, i.e. not a subscription database) and the URL appears stable, include that.
  • If it is from a subscription database, it is probably not a stable URL, so (usually) include the database name and the homepage of the database itself. The exception is if the content is easily accessible from multiple sources -- e.g., press releases, stock quotes, and the like -- which needs no database retrieval information at all. 

Because the APA style manual does not provide examples for every single type of resource, these examples have been adapted for common business resources. If you are unsure of how to cite a source, ask your business librarian

Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 

Ad Age DataCenter Business Source Complete SWOT Analysis Census Data Global Road Warrior
Hoover's Company Profiles IBISWorld ISO Standard OSHA Standard
Reference Solutions Sage Data SEC Filings Simmons Insights
SRDS Statista Value Line Website: Data Set
Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS) Winmo    

 

Ad Age / Ad Age Datacenter

Articles

General format: Author’s last name comma first initial period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics magazine title period Example description: Rittenhouse comma L period open parenthesis 2023 comma July 10 close parenthesis period How AI is revamping out hyphen of hyphen home advertising period in italics Ad Age period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: McDonald's and Burger King in Brazil were among the first companies to use AI in an advertising campaign (Rittenhouse, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to Rittenhouse (2023), McDonald's and Burger King in Brazil were among the first companies to use AI in an advertising campaign.


Datacenter content

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open bracket description close bracket period database homepage Example description: Ad Age Datacenter period open parenthesis 2023 comma October 23 close parenthesis period in italics Ad Age world’s largest advertisers non italics open bracket Data set close bracket period  https colon forward slash forward slash adage period com forward slash datacenter forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: In 2022, Amazon spent 20.6 billion dollars on advertising and promotion (Ad Age Datacenter, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to Ad Age Datacenter (2023), Amazon spent 20.6 billion dollars on advertising and promotion. 

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Business Source Complete - SWOT Analysis

Marketline is the author of most of the SWOTs in our subscription. For SWOTs that may come from other databases, most often you are looking for a corporate/organization author.

General format: Corporate Author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title period non italics database homepage Example description: Marketline period open parenthesis 2023 comma April 24 close parenthesis period in italics Cisco Systems comma Inc period SWOT analysis period http colon forward slash forward slash www period marketlineinfo period com

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Cisco's declining cash reserves in the last couple of years may be an indication of the company's inability to acquire sufficient capital (MarketLine, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to a MarketLine (2023) report, Cisco's declining cash reserves may be an indicator of the company's inability to acquire sufficient capital.

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Census Data

Data tables

General format: Corporate Author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period In italics title of table with location or table number non italics open parenthesis table ID close parenthesis open bracket description close bracket period freely accessible URL Example description: U period S period  Census Bureau period open parenthesis 2021 close parenthesis period in italics Real estate colon Business dynamics statistics colon Establishment age colon 1878 hyphen 2021 non italics open parenthesis Table BDSEAGE close parenthesis open bracket Data set close bracket period https colon forward slash forward slash data  period census period gov forward slash table forward slash BDSTIMESERIES period BDSEAGE question mark g equals symbol 010XX00US&n equal symbol 531

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: In the United States the number of real estate firms increased by over 12,000 between 2020 and 2021 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021).

Narrative Citation: According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2021), the number of real estate firms in the United States increased by over 12,000 between 2020 and 2021.


Census Business Builder

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title of webpage non italics open bracket description close bracket period retrieved month date comma year from freely accessible URL Example description: U period S period census bureau period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis  period in italics Census business builder non italics open brackets Map of bars in Milwaukee County comma W I and its total population open bracket period Retrieved January 8 comma 2024 from https colon forward slash forward slash cbb period census period gov forward slash cbb forward slash

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: There are 301 establishments in Milwaukee county which exclusively sell alcohol (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to the U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.), there are 301 establishments in Milwaukee county which exclusively sell alcohol.


Quick Facts tables

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period In italics title of webpage non italics open bracket description close bracket period retrieval date from freely accessible URL Example description: U period S period census bureau period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics QuickFacts colon Stevens Point comma Wisconsin semicolon Whitewater city comma Wisconsin semicolon United States non italics open brackets Data set close brackets period Retrieved January 8 comma 2024 comma from https colon forward slash forward slash www period census period gov forward slash quickfacts forward slash fact forward slash table forward slash stevenspointcitywisconsin comma whitewatercitywisconsin comma US forward slash HSG860222

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The median gross rent in Whitewater, WI is only 1% more than in Stevens Point, WI (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to the U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.) the median gross rent in Whitewater, WI is only 1% more than the median gross rent in Stevens Point, WI.

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Global Road Warrior

Report with author

Some Global Road Warrior report pages have a Writer listed at the bottom of the page. If none listed, use Global Road Warrior as an Author, and no need to repeat it in the Source position.

General format: Author’s last name comma first initials period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics title of page period non italics database period database  homepage Example description: Myers comma D period P period  open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Democratic Republic of Congo open parentheses DRC close parenthesis colon Business culture  hyphen Attire period non italics Global Road Warrior period  https colon forward slash forward slash www period globalroadwarrior period com forward slash d period close parenthesis period in italics title of page period non italics database period database  homepage Example: Myers comma D period P period  open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Democratic Republic of Congo open parentheses DRC close parenthesis colon Business culture  hyphen Attire period non italics Global Road Warrior period  https colon forward slash forward slash www period globalroadwarrior period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The varying tropical climate of the Democratic Republic of Congo dictates the type of attire worn by business travelers to the country (Myers, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: Myers (n.d.) explains that the varying tropical climate of the Democratic Republic of Congo dictates the type of attire worn by business travelers to the country.


However, some subsections may be reprints from other sources -- e.g.,  the Human Rights Reports section is reprinted from the U.S. Department of State report:

Reprinted from elsewhere

General format: First group author ampersand second group author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period In italics title of page period non italics database period database homepage Example description: Bureau of Democracy comma Human Rights and Labor  ampersand World Trade Press period open parenthesis 2022 close parenthesis period in italics Australia colon Human rights report for 2022 period non italics  Global Road Warrior period https colon forward slash forward slash www period globalroadwarrior period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Unlike the United States, the government of Australia prohibits sympathy strikes by unions (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor & World Trade Press, 2022).

Narrative Citation: According to the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor and the World Trade Press (2022), the government of Australia prohibits sympathy strikes by unions. 

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Hoovers Company Profiles

General format: Group author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title of report period non italics database homepage Example description: D ampersand B Hoovers period open parenthesis 2023 comma June 1 close parenthesis period in italics FUBU the collection comma LLC profile period non italics https colon forward slash forward slash www period dnb period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: FUBU is a privately owned corporation which specializes in producing hip-hop influenced sportswear (D&B Hoovers, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to D&B Hoovers (2023), FUBU is a privately owned corporation which specializes in producing hip-hop influenced sportswear. 

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IBIS World

Report with author

General format: author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title of page non italics open bracket description close bracket period database period database homepage Example description: Brocker comma M period open parenthesis 2023 comma December close parenthesis period in italics Pet grooming ampersand boarding in the US colon Products and markets non italics open bracket US industry report colon NAICS 81291 close bracket period  IBISWorld period https colon forward slash forward slash www period ibisworld period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Millennials are more willing to spend on premium care for their pets since they view them as a part of their family (Brocker, 2023)

Narrative Citation: Brocker (2023) states that Millennials are more willing to spend on premium care for their pets since they view them as a part of their family. 


No author

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title of page non italics open bracket description close bracket period database homepage Example description: IBISWorld period open parenthesis 2023 comma December close parenthesis period in italics Dentists in the US colon Risk overview non italics open bracket US risk ratings report colon NAICS 62121 close bracket period https colon forward slash forward slash www period ibisworld  period com forward slash

Parenthetical Citation: Increase in federal funding for medicare and medicaid has lowered industry risk for dentists in the United States (IBISWorld, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to IBISWorld (2023) an increase in federal funding for medicare and medicaid has lowered industry risk for dentists in the United States.

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ISO Standards

General format: Corporate or Group author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open parenthesis I S O standard number close parenthesis period friendly URL Example description: International Organization for Standardization period open parenthesis 2023 close parenthesis period in italics Occupational health and safety management systems double hyphen General guidelines for the implementation of ISO 45001 colon 2018 non italics open parenthesis ISO Standard No period 45002 colon 2023 close parenthesis period https colon forward slash forward slash www period iso period org forward slash standard forward slash 76619 period html

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Leadership and employee involvement are important to the management of occupational health and safety risks (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 2023).

Narrative Citation: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO, 2023) stresses the importance of leadership and employee involvement in the management of occupational health and safety risks.

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OSHA Standards

General format: Corporate or Group author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open parenthesis O S H A standard number close parenthesis period publication source period friendly URL Example description: Occupational Safety and Health Administration period open parenthesis 1970 close parenthesis period in italics Occupational safety and health standards colon Hazardous Materials colon Flammable liquids non italics open parenthesis OSHA Standard No period 1910 period 106 close parenthesis period United States Department of Labor period https colon forward slash forward slash www period osha period gov forward slash laws hyphen regs forward slash regulations forward slash standardnumber forward slash 1910 forward slash 1910  period 106

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The minimum required distance between two containers holding flammable liquids such as petroleum is three feet (Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA], 1970).

Narrative Citation: According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, 2023) the minimum required distance between two containers holding flammable liquids such as petroleum is three feet.

Note: If the abbreviation of a group author is well-know, or will appear in the paper at least times, include the abbreviation in square brackets in the parenthetical citation, and with the date element in the narrative citation.

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Reference Solutions (formerly Reference USA)

Company profile

Include retrieval dates since profiles are regularly updated. Look in the Business Demographics section of a company profile for the Last Updated On: date.

If the company's name is sufficiently unique to identify that company (i.e., there is only one of that company in that city/state), then that is all you need for the Title. If there are multiple companies with that name and that location, then include the exact address in parentheses as a unique identifier, as below.

General format: Group author period open parenthesis last updated date close parenthesis period in italics title of company non italics open parenthesis address of company to establish identity close parenthesis open bracket description close bracket period database period retrieval date comma from database homepage Example description: Data Axel period open parenthesis 2023 comma November close parenthesis period in italics Sage ampersand Oats Trading Post non italics open parenthesis 424 N Last Chance Gulch comma Helena comma M T close parenthesis open bracket Company profile close bracket period  Reference Solutions period Retrieved from January 9 comma 2024 comma from https colon forward slash forward slash www period referenceusa period com forward slash

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The two main competitors of the Sage and Oats Trading Post are located in neighboring Idaho (Data Axel, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to Data Axel (2023), the two main competitors of the Sage and Oats Trading Post are located in neighboring Idaho. 


List of companies or people

For creating a list of companies or people with certain criteria, the Excel or PDF format list has no real title. So create a description, in [square brackets], of what criteria you applied to get your list, so that someone else could retrieve the same (or similar) data. Include retrieval date because the list would probably be different at a later date. 

General format: corporate or group author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period open bracket description of variables used close bracket period database period retrieval date database homepage Example description: Data Axel period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period open bracket List of companies in Janesville comma WI metro area that are veteran owned close bracket period Reference Solutions period  Retrieved from January 9 comma  2024 comma from https colon forward slash forward slash www period referenceusa period com forward slash

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: 22 businesses located in the Janesville metro area are owned by veterans (Data Axel, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to Data Axel (n.d.) 22 businesses located in the Janesville metro area are owned by veterans. 

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Sage Data (formerly Data Planet)

General format: corporate or group author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title of dataset non italics open bracket description close bracket period publisher period digital object identifier or D O I Example description: Bureau of Transportation Statistics period open parenthesis 2023 comma December 12 close parenthesis period in italics Airline performance  hyphen arrivals colon  Cancelled comma 01 forward slash 01 forward slash 2010 hyphen 07 forward slash 31 forward slash 2023 non italics open bracket Chart close bracket period Sage Data period https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 6068 forward slash DP18CEAE08FA62

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Approximately 10,00 flights were cancelled in one day in the United States on March 29th, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 lock-down measures (Bureau of Transportation Statistics [BTS], 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS, 2023) approximately 10,000 flights were cancelled in one day in the United States on March 29th, 2020 as a result of COVID-19 lock-down measures.

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SEC filings 

All SEC filings are publicly available on the web. So, no matter where you accessed it from, there's really no need to include database information, though you can include a freely-accessible web link to make it easier for your reader to retrieve it if you wish. 

General format: Company name as author period open parenthesis filing date close parenthesis period in italics title of S E C form period non italics friendly U R L  Example description: East West Bancorp comma Inc period open parenthesis 2021 comma December 21 close parenthesis period in italics Form 10 hyphen K period non italics https colon forward slash forward slash www period sec period gov forward slash edgar forward slash search forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The risk of credit losses from corporate debt securities held by East West Bank are likely to be low since their credit profiles are strong with expectations of on-time contractual payments (East West Bancorp, Inc., 2021)

Narrative Citation: East West Bancorp, Inc. (2021) state in their annual report that risk of credit losses on their corporate debt securities are likely to be low since their credit profiles are strong with expectations of on-time contractual payments. 

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Simmons Insights

The Title is the dataset used, which also provides you with a Date. However, that doesn't tell your reader what exact data you were using. So create a description after the title, in [square brackets], of what criteria you applied to get your list, so that someone else could retrieve the same (or similar) data. 

Cross tab data

General format: Group or corporate author period open parenthesis survey date close parenthesis in italics title of dataset used non italics open bracket description of variables used close bracket open bracket format close format period database homepage Example description: M R I hyphen Simmons period open parenthesis 2021 close parenthesis period in italics 2021 Spring M R I hyphen Simmons U S A non italics open bracket No period of children currently living at home forward slash hand ampersand body cream comma lotion or oil brand used close bracket open bracket Data set close bracket period  https colon forward slash forward slash www period mrisimmons period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: There are approximately 7 million customers in the United States who use hand and body creams, lotions or oils (MRI-Simmons, 2021).

Narrative Citation: According to MRI-Simmons (2021) there are approximately 7 million customers in the United States who use hand and body creams, lotions, or oils. 


Quick report profile

General format: Group or corporate author period open parenthesis survey date close parenthesis period in italics title of dataset used non italics open bracket description of variables used close bracket open bracket format close bracket period database homepage Example description: M R I hyphen Simmons period open parenthesis 2021 close parenthesis period in italics Spring 2021 MRI hyphen Simmons Connect non italics open bracket Repondent: College or university student close bracket open bracket Quick report colon Social media activity profile close bracket period   https colon forward slash forward slash www period mrisimmons period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: 52% of college students in the United States accessed Instagram through a mobile device in 2021 (MRI-Simmons, 2021).

Narrative Citation: According to MRI-Simmons (2021) 52% of college students in the United States accessed Instagram through a mobile devise in 2021.

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SRDS Media Solutions

For the profiles of any type of Publication, Radio, TV/Cable, Out-of-home, or Hispanic media with a profile in SRDS, include retrieval date as these are updated regularly.

General format: Group author and corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parentheses period in italics title of media outlet non italics open bracket description close bracket period retrieval date from database homepage Example description: S R D S Media Solutions period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Beloit Daily News non italics open bracket Publication profile close bracket period Retrieved January 10 comma 2024 from  https colon forward slash forward slash next period srds period com

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The Beloit Daily News boasts a circulation of over 10,000 subscribers (SRDS Media Solutions, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to SRDS Media Solutions (n.d.) the Beloit Daily News boasts a circulation of over 10,000 subscribers. 


DMA & MSA Maps

General format: Group or corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open bracket description close bracket period retrieval date from database homepage Example description: S R D S Media Solutions period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Wisconsin non italics open bracket DMA map close bracket period Retrieved January 10 comma 2024 from  https colon forward slash forward slash next period srds forward com

 

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Media outlets in Sheboygan WI may charge higher advertising rates since they fall under Milwaukee's designated market area (DMA) (SRDS Media Solutions, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to SRDS Media Solutions (n.d.) media outlets in Sheboygan, WI may charge higher advertising rates since they fall under Milwaukee's designated market area (DMA).

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Statista

Look in the “Source” box to the right of Statista's charts for most of the citation information. Sometimes there are multiple sources for one chart; if so, treat it just like you would a normal multiple-author situation on an article. For date, check the Release Info or Source Link boxes (see right); but if not listed, use (n.d.) for No Date.

General format: Author last name comma first initial period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open bracket description close bracket period database period database homepage Example description: Nguyen comma P period open parenthesis 2023 comma November close parenthesis period in italics Cybersecurity colon market data ampersand analysis non italics open bracket Market Insights report close bracket period Statista period  https colon forward slash forward slash www period statista period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: 48% of global cybersecurity professionals think that deep learning for detecting malware in encrypted traffic may be the most promising emerging machine learning trend in 2023 (Nguyen, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to Nguyen (2023), 48% of global cybersecurity professional thin that deep learning for detecting malware in encrypted traffic may be the most promising emerging machine learning trend in 2023.


No named author

General format: Corporate or group author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open bracket description close bracket period database homepage Example description: Statista period open parenthesis 2024 comma January close parenthesis period in italics Average annual OPEC crude oil price from 1960 to 2023  open parenthesis in U.S. dollars per barrel close parenthesis open bracket Chart close bracket period https colon forward slash forward slash www period statista period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Crude oil prices hit an all time high at over $109 per barrel in 2012 (Statista, 2024).

Narrative Citation: According to Statista (2024), crude oil prices hit an all time high at over $109 per barrel in 2012.

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Value Line 

screenshot image showing the location of the PDF reports link in Value lineValue Line content (e.g. stock prices, some ratings) is updated almost daily, but if they have a PDF of your company, then it is archived so no need to include the retrieval date here. Look for the PDFs if available for your company in the top right or bottom left corner of the HTML webpage.

If there is no PDF, then it is unarchived, so use (n.d.) and include a retrieval date. 

General format: Group or corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics company name as title period non italics database period database homepage Example description: Value Line period open parenthesis 2024 comma January 5 close parenthesis period in italics Johnson Controls period non italics  Value Line Investment Survey period  https colon forward slash forward slash research period valueline period com forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Johnson Controls’ international growth in 2023 has helped to offset its weak performance in North America (Value Line, 2024).

Narrative Citation: According to Value Line (2024) Johnson Controls’ international grown in 2023 has helped to offset its weak performance in North America.

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Website: Data Set

Named author

General format: First author last name comma first initials ampersand second author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open bracket description close bracket period source period digital object identifier or D O I  Example description: Dixon comma T period H period ampersand Protti comma M period open parenthesis 2007 hyphen 2023 close parenthesis period  in italics Costa Rica GPS network hyphen ELVI hyphen El Viejo P period S period non italics open bracket Data set close bracket period The GAGE Facility operated by EarthScope Consortium period https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 7283 forward slash T59C6VKN

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The Nicoya region in Costa Rica is prone to frequent earthquakes (Dixon & Protti, 2007-2023).

Narrative Citation: The data gathered by Dixon & Protti (2007-2023) shows that the Nicoya region in Costa Rica is prone to frequent earthquakes.


Corporate author

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis date close parenthesis period in italics title non italics open bracket description close bracket period freely accessible URL Example description: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation period open parenthesis 2023 comma November 3 close parenthesis period in italics Failed bank list non italics open bracket Data set close bracket period https colon forward slash forward slash www period fdic period gov forward slash resources forward slash resolutions forward slash bank hyphen failures forward slash failed hyphen bank hyphen list forward slash index period html

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: There were no reported bank failures reported in 2021 and 2022 (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation [FDIC], 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC, 2023) there were reported bank failures in 2021 and 2022. 

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Wharton Research Data Services -- Compustat, CRSP, etc. 

With datasets acquired through WRDS such as Compustat or CRSP, the author can mention that the data was collected from these sources in the methodology section or at the end of the paper. 

For example:

“4.1 Data and methods

We retrieve the sample of banks from COMPUSTAT's bank file. Following Akhigbe and Martin (2006), we include in the sample all commercial banks (SIC code 602X) and savings institutions (SIC code 603X). To be included in the sample the bank must have continuous returns on CRSP in the 365 day period prior to the analyst's recommendation. For each sample bank, we obtain all of their analyst recommendations that are reported on the Thomson Financial's Institutional Brokers Estimate (I/B/E/S) U.S. Detail File in the time period 1994–2012" (Premti et al, 2017).

Reference

Premti, A., Garcia-Feijoo, L., & Madura, J. (2017). Information content of analyst recommendations in the banking industry. International Review of Financial Analysis 49, 35-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.irfa.2016.11.005 

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Winmo  

General format: Group or corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics title of company or brand period non italics retrieval date period database homepage Example description: Winmo period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Equalpride period non italics Retrieved January 12 comma 2024 period https colon forward slash forward slash www period winmo period com

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Equalpride’s media spending in 2022 was down by 77% since the previous year (Winmo, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to Winmo (n.d.), Equalpride’s media spending in 2022 was down by 77% since the previous year.

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