Because the APA style manual does not provide examples for every single type of resource, these examples have been adapted for common business resources. Many business sources contain tables, charts, data sets, and other non-standard sources. If you are unsure of how to cite a source, ask your business librarian. General guidelines:
|Ad Forum||Reference USA|
|Advertising Redbooks||RIA Checkpoint|
|American FactFinder / U.S. Census||Simmons OneView|
|Business Source Complete SWOT Analysis||SRDS Media Solutions|
|Global Road Warrior||Statista|
|IBIS World||Value Line|
|Nexis Uni||Website: Data Set|
|Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS)|
Kantar Media is the author when citing the US Media Spend section of a company profile, and note that this section is updated quarterly, so do include the retrieval date.
Marketline is the author of most of the SWOTs in our subscription. For SWOTs that may come from other databases, most often you are looking for a corporate/organization author.
Some Global Road Warrior report pages have a Writer listed at the bottom of the page – if none listed, use Global Road Warrior as an author.
However, some subsections may be reprints from other sources -- e.g., the Human Rights Reports section is reprinted from the U.S. Department of State report:
The information on a Nexis Uni company profile (dossier) comes from a variety of sources. Many sections, such as the SEC filings, Company Reports, Company Activities, News, & Legal, are all reprinted from other news or governmental sources, and should be cited showing the original author. In general, look at the bottom of pages for Copyright info or “from______” -- see some examples at right. Think logically about who would have created this info (e.g., SEC filings come from the company; company reports are generally from third parties; news is reprinted from typical newspapers or magazines) to decide who should be the author in your citation. Here are some possible examples:
Include retrieval dates here. Look in the Business Demographics section of a company profile for the Last Updated On: date.
For the profiles of any type of Publication, Radio, TV/Cable, Out-of-home, or Hispanic media with a profile in SRDS, include retrieval date as these are updated regularly:
These PDFs should all have dates:
Look in the “Source” box to the right of Statista's charts for most of the citation information. Sometimes there are multiple sources for one chart; if so, treat it just like you would a normal multiple-author situation on an article. For date, check the Release or Further Info boxes (see right); but if not listed, use (n.d.) for No Date.
Value Line content (e.g. stock prices, some ratings) is updated almost daily, so do include the retrieval date here. The best “semi-permanent” publication date is the date of the most recent quarterly report – see the top right or bottom right corner for the PDF dates.
Compustat Industrial [Annual Data]. (Years). Available: Standard & Poor's/Compustat [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Service.
CRSP Stocks. (Years). Available: Center For Research in Security Prices. Graduate School of Business. University of Chicago [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Service.
CRSP Mutual Funds. (Years). Available: Center For Research in Security Prices. Graduate School of Business. University of Chicago [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Service.