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APA Style (7th ed.)

Book, eBook, Dissertation

Basic structure for an entire book: 

 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle (X ed., Vol. X). Publisher Name. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx

 

You can leave out any parts that you don't have, like a DOI or the volume/edition.

Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 

Book with DOI Book without DOI Corporate Author or Organization
Two Authors Three to Twenty Authors  Textbooks
E-Book or Audiobook from the Web, no DOI Illustrated Children's Books Chapter or Section
Reference Entry Entire Edited Book Specific Edition
Specific Volume Dissertation  

Book with DOI (p. 321 in Manual)

Use this format for print or ebooks with a DOI. Include the author's last name and then first and middle initial.

General format: Author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title period non italics publisher name period digital object identifier or D O I.  Example description: Fessler comma D period open parenthesis 2018 close parenthesis period in italics The energy disruption triangle colon Three sectors that will change how we generate comma use comma and store energy period non italics John Wiley ampersand Sons period  https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 1002 forward slash 9781119347101

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The decision to add solar energy to a home depends on an individual's energy goals (Fessler, 2018).

Narrative Citation: Fessler (2018) outlines key points for the homeowner to consider in making the decision to choose solar or traditional.


Book without DOI (p. 321 in Manual)

If you have no DOI, use this format, whether it's a print book or an ebook from an academic database. 

General format: Author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title period non italics publisher name period. Example description: Flanagan comma O period  J period open parenthesis 2007 close parenthesis period in italics The really hard problem colon Meaning in a material world period non italics The MIT Press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Qualities of eudaimonia often represent what people want most in life, such as happiness and well-being (Flanagan, 2007).

In-text Citation: Owen Flanagan (2007) suggests that empirical inquiry is an excellent source for understanding human nature and well-being.


Corporate Author or Organization (p. 329-330 in Manual)

Put the organization's full name in the author position. If the publisher is the same as the author, you don't need to repeat it. 

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title period non italics open parenthesis edition information close parenthesis period digital object identifier or D O I.  Example description: American Psychological Association period open parenthesis 2020 close parenthesis period in italics Publication manual of the American Psychological Association period non italics open parenthesis 7th ed period close parenthesis period  https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 1037 forward slash 0000165 hyphen 000

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Student work deserves the same attention to detail in referencing as does professional writing (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020).

Additional references later in the paper may simply include the acronym: (APA, 2020)

In-text Citation: According to the American Psychological Association (2020), the purpose of writing with consistent, predictable citation and formatting style is to allow readers to focus on content.


Two Authors

List up to twenty authors in the order they are listed on the title page. Use the ampersand (&) rather than the word "and." If there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author. 

General format: First author last name comma first initials period ampersand second author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title non italics open parenthesis edition information period close parenthesis period publisher period Example description: Fant comma L period J period ampersand Fant comma B period B period open parenthesis 2011 close parenthesis period in italics The American Sign Language phrase book non italics open parenthesis 3rd ed period close parenthesis period McGraw Hill period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: American Sign Language depends on light waves instead of sound waves (Fant & Fant, 2011).

Narrative Citation: Fant & Fant (2011) suggest approaching ASL in the same way one would approach learning any foreign language.

Three to Twenty Authors

List up to twenty authors in the order they are listed on the title page. Use the ampersand (&) rather than the word "and." If there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author. (p. 317 in Manual; see APA Style Blog for more)

General format: First author’s last name comma first initials period comma second author’s last name comma first initials period comma ampersand third author’s last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title period non italic publisher period  Example description: Parkinson comma B period comma Fischer comma A period K period comma ampersand Manstead comma A period S period open parenthesis 2005 close parenthesis period in italics Emotion in social relations colon culture comma  group comma and interpersonal processes period non italics Psychology Press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Emotions serve important social and communicative functions (Parkinson et al., 2005).

Narrative Citation: Parkinson et al. (2005) try to understand emotion by examining the everyday social settings in which it operates.


Textbooks

General format: First author’s last name comma first initials period comma second author’s last name comma first initials period comma up to twenty authors period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title non italics open parenthesis edition or volume or unit information close parenthesis period publisher period Example description: Baumann comma J period F period comma Chard comma D period J period comma Cooks comma J period comma Cooper comma J period D period comma Gersten comma R period comma Lipson comma M period comma Morrow comma L period M period comma Pikulsk comma J period J period comma Templeton comma S period comma Valencia comma S period W period comma Valentino comma C period comma ampersand Vogt comma M period open parenthesis 2014 close parenthesis period in italics Journeys Common Core colon Grade 3 non italics open parenthesis Teacher's ed period comma Unit 5 close parenthesis period Houghton Mifflin Harcourt periodIf there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author. 

In this example, Common Core is a proper name for the published set of standards, so it is capitalized. Add in the parentheses after the title, the edition, volume, unit, grade level designation, whatever is needed to identify what specifically you used.

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Recognizing names and distinguishing letters are literacy concepts that begin in the first week of kindergarten (Baumann et al., 2014).

Narrative Citation: Baumann et al. (2014) incorporate time for sharing extension texts in the Journeys Common Core scope and sequence.


eBook or Audiobook from the Web, No DOI (pp. 321-322 in Manual)

At the end, include the DOI. If there is no DOI, include the ​ebook's URL address if it is a stable URL. Do not include URLs from subscription-only databases, as these are not usually stable URLs. 

General format: Author’s last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title period non italics publisher period stable URL Example description: Kutzinski comma V period open parenthesis 2012 close parenthesis period in italics The worlds of Langston Hughes colon  Modernism and translation in the Americas period Cornell University Press period https colon forward slash forward slash www period loc period gov forward slash item forward slash 2020715369 forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Translators' cultural values and political agendas were suggested in their selection of Hughes's poetry (Kutzinski, 2012).

Narrative Citation: Kutzinski (2012) concludes that reading Langston Hughes convinced her that "differences need not divide—either in literature or in life" (p. 240).


 

Illustrated Children's Books (see more)

Illustrator Different from Author

General format: Author’s last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title non italics open parenthesis illustrator first initial period last name comma illus period close parenthesis period publisher period Example description: Colleen comma M period open parenthesis 2017 close parenthesis period in italics Love comma triangle non italics open parenthesis B period Shea comma Illus period close parenthesis period Balzer Bray period

Illustrator Same as Author

General Format: Author’s last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title non italics open parenthesis illustrator first initial period last name comma illus period close parenthesis period publisher period Example description: Jaramillo comma S period open parenthesis 2017 close parenthesis period in italics My little donkey colon A Christmas song equal symbol Mi burrito colon Una canción Navideña non italics open parenthesis S period Jaramillo comma Illus period close parenthesis period Encantos Media Studios period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Love, Triangle recounts the tale of two friends, a circle and a square, and a triangle that initially creates a wedge in their friendship (Colleen, 2017).

Include only the author in the parenthetical citation. The following example recognizes both author and illustrator:

Narrative Citation: Author Marcie Colleen and illustrator Bob Shae's picture book Love, Triangle (2017) tells of a Circle, Square, and Triangle who learn to appreciate each other's strengths and differences and learn to be friends.


 

Chapter or Section (pp. 326-328 in Manual)

If you are citing a specific chapter or section of an edited book, list the author of that section first. Include information such as page numbers, edition and volume numbers after the title of the book.

General format: Author’s last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period article title period in first editors first initial period last name ampersand second author’s first initial period last name open parenthesis eds period close parenthesis comma in italics book title non italics open parenthesis sections pages close parenthesis period publisher period Example description: Fairley comma J period open parenthesis 2013 close parenthesis period There is no Revolution without a song colon open quotation New Song close quotation in Latin america period in b period kushke Ampersand b period Norton open parentheses eds period close parenthesis comma in italics music and protest in 1968 non italics open parenthesis p p period 119 hyphen 136 close parenthesis period Cambridge University press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The musical exchange between Chile and Cuba intensified in the early 1970s (Fairly, 2013).

Narrative Citation: Fairly (2013), notes that Chilean and Cuban musicians traveled between the two countries, intensifying the music scene in each.


 

Reference Entry (p. 328 in Manual)

With Author

Begin with the author of the entry, not the author or editor of the book. 

General format: Entry author last name comma first initials period open parentheses publication year close parentheses. entry title period. The word “In” followed by the  editors initials period last name open parenthesis Eds period close parentheses comma in italics reference work title non italics open parentheses page numbers close parentheses period Publisher period Example description: Sam comma S period open parenthesis 2002 close parenthesis period Cambodian culture and community in America period In J period T period Titon ampersand B period Carlin open parenthesis Eds period close parenthesis comma in italics American musical traditions non italics open parenthesis pp period 123 hyphen 126 close parenthesis period Schirmer Reference period

Group Author

Begin with the entry title. “When an online reference work is continuously updated [...], use “n.d.” as the year of publication and include a retrieval date” (p. 328).

General format: Group author period open parenthesis publication year close parentheses period. entry title period “In” in italics the reference work title period non italics. retrieved month date, year, “from” URL Example description: Merriam hyphen Webster period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period earworm period in in italics Merriam hyphen Webster period com dictionary period non italics retrieved January 5 comma 2024 from https colon forward slash forward slash www period merriam hyphen webster period com forward slash dictionary forward slash earworm

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The first known use of the term earworm was in 1802 (Merriam-Webster, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary (n.d.), the earliest use of the term earworm was in 1802.


 

Entire Edited Book

Put the editor in the author position followed by (Ed.) or (Eds.). See p. 322 in Manual.

General format: Editor last name comma first initials period open parenthesis capital E d s period close parenthesis period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics title period non italics publisher period digital object identifier or D O I if available Example description: Seiple comma C period ampersand Hoover comma D period R period open parenthesis Eds period close parenthesis period open parenthesis 2022 close parenthesis period in italics The Routledge handbook of religious literacy comma pluralism comma and global engagement period non italics Routledge period https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 4324 forward slash 9781003036555

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Religious literacy is defined as a set of competencies and skills that is continuously refined through cross-cultural engagement (Seiple & Hoover, 2022).

Narrative Citation: Seiple and Hoover (2022) contend that religious literacy is “vital to building societies and states of neighborly solidarity and civic fairness.”


Specific Edition

Include edition in parentheses after the title. Cite the edition as it is printed on the title page (2nd ed., Rev. ed., 2019 ed., etc.)

General format: Chapter author last name coma initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period chapter title period In editors last name comma first initials period open parenthesis capital E d s period close parenthesis comma in italics book title non italics open parentheses edition period comma chapter pages close parentheses period Publisher period Example description: Haboush comma K period L period open parenthesis 2005 close parenthesis period Lebanese and Syrian families period In McGoldrick comma M period comma Giordano comma J period comma ampersand Garcia hyphen Preto comma N period open parenthesis Eds period close parenthesis comma in italics Ethnicity and family therapy non italics open parenthesis 3rd ed period comma pp period 468 hyphen 484 close parenthesis period The Guilford Press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Family therapy is a good “fit” with traditional cultural values (Haboush, 2005).

Narrative Citation: Given the centrality of family, Haboush (2005) cautions that “insight-oriented” interventions may be incompatible with individuals who are more in tune with Arabic society.


 

Specific Volume 

Include the volume used in parentheses after the title.

General format: Title of Entry period open parentheses publication year close parenthesis period The word “In” followed by the  editor first initials period last name open parenthesis E d period close parentheses comma in italics reference work title non italics open parentheses volume number comma page number close parenthesis period publisher period Example description: Tan comma Margaret Leng period open parenthesis 2000 close parenthesis period In L period Kuhn open parenthesis Ed period close parenthesis comma in italics Baker apostrophe s biographical dictionary of musicians non italics open parenthesis capital V o l period 6 comma p period 3580 close parenthesis period Schirmer period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: It wasn’t until 1971 that the first woman graduated with a Doctor of Music degree from the Julliard School (“Tan, Margaret Leng,” 2000).

Narrative Citation: According to Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (2000), Margaret Leng Tan not only performed as a pianist throughout the U. S. and Europe, but has the distinction of developing a repertory for toy piano.


 

Dissertation from a Database

P. 333 in Manual. After the title, include the publication number, format and school in square brackets.

Include the database name, but no URL since it is not accessible to the general public.

General format: Author last name first initials period open parentheses year close parenthesis period in italics dissertation title non italics open parentheses publication number if available close parenthesis Open Bracket description of dissertation or thesis comma name of institution awarding the degree close bracket period name of database period Example description: Stokar comma H period open parenthesis 2016 close parenthesis period in italics Managing workers who are deaf colon A phenomenological investigation of hearing supervisors non italics open parenthesis Publication No period 10172459 close parenthesis open bracket Doctoral dissertation comma Loyola University close bracket period ProQuest Dissertations and Theses period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: There is a need for tools to effectively provide task-related accommodations in the food service industry (Stokar, 2016).

In-text Citation: Stokar’s study (2016) distinguishes between work accommodation support and Deaf-hearing socialization strategies.

Dissertation Free Online

Include the archive name and the URL where it is accessible to the general public.

General Format; Author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics dissertation title non - italics Open bracket description of thesis or dissertation comma name of institution awarding degree close bracket period archive name period Friendly URL Example description: Legreid comma J period S period open parenthesis 2020 close parenthesis period in italics Examining the experiences of student veterans on campus colon A phenomenological qualitative study non italics open bracket Masters thesis comma University of Wisconsin hyphen Whitewater close bracket period. MINDS at U W period https colon forward slash forward slash minds period wisconsin period edu forward slash handle forward slash 1793 forward slash 80119

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Student veterans express that having values that differ from their civilian peers affects their connectedness with others on campus (Legreid, 2020).

Narrative Citation: Legreid (2020) conducted In-depth interviews with four United States combat veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan.