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APA Style, 6th ed.

A guide to APA formatting, in-text citation, and the References list

Book, eBook, Dissertation

Often, in APA, you will have to combine multiple examples to make a correct citation. So for example, if you have an eBook that also has a specific edition, combine both of those examples, etc. 

Key Elements Chapter or Section
One Author Reference Entry
Corporate Author or Organization Entire Edited Book
Two-Seven Authors Specific Edition
Eight or More Authors Specific Volume
eBook Dissertation

Key Elements

  1. Author (Last name, first and middle initial only)
  2. Publication year
  3. Title (italicized)
  4. City & state of publisher
  5. Publisher
  6. If citing a chapter or article: Page number(s)
  7. eBook: DOI or URL address

One Author (7.02)

Include the author's surname and then first and middle initial.

Flanagan comma O period J period parenthesis 2007 parenthesis period Really hard problem colon Meaning in a material world period Cambridge comma MA colon MIT Press period


Corporate Author or Organization (7.03.31)

Put the organization's full name in the author position.

American Psychological Association period parenthesis 2010 parenthesis period Publication manual of the American Psychological Association period parenthesis 6th ed period parenthesis period Washington comma DC colon American Psychological Association period

Two-Seven Authors (7.01.1, 7.02)

List the authors in the order they are listed on the title page. Use the ampersand (&) rather than the word "and."

Parkinson comma B period comma Fischer comma A period comma & Manstead comma A period S period (2005) period Emotion in social relations colon Culture comma group comma and interpersonal processes period New York comma NY colon Taylor & Francis period

Eight or More Authors (7.01.2, 7.02)

List the first six authors, add an ellipses (...), and list the last author.

Neu comma J period comma Lakoff comma R period comma Kamin comma J period comma Green comma P period comma Lessig comma L period comma Brody comma E period comma … Prinzker comma T period (2009) period Words and deeds period Cambridge comma England colon Cambridge University Press period

eBook (7.02.19)

At the end, include the DOI. Note that as of March 2017, CrossRef and APA recommend that DOIs be formatted as such: with no period at the end. But DOIs starting with, or with just doi:10.xxxx/xxxxx, will also continue to work -- the https: simply makes it more secure and easier to be recognized as a functioning link.

If there is no DOI, include the ​ebook's URL address if it is a stable URL.

Schiraldi comma G period R period (2001) period The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook colon A guide to healing comma recovery comma and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version] period https colon// doi dot org/10 dot 1036/0071393722

From a Database (7.02.22)

At the end, use the database homepage URL. If you have included the DOI, do not include the URL.

Cheng comma V period J period parenthesis 2004 parenthesis period Inauthentic colon The anxiety over culture and identity period Retrieved from http colon//www dot netlibrary dot com

On a Kindle, iPad, etc. (7.02.19)

After the publication information, include the type of e-reader you used and the website or software you used to retrieved the book.

Kirkpatrick comma D period parenthesis 2010 parenthesis period The Facebook effect colon The inside story of the company that is connecting the world [Kindle DX version] period Retrieved from Amazon dot com

Chapter or Section (6.27, 7.02.25)

If you are citing a specific chapter or section of an edited book, list the author of the section first. Include information such as page numbers, edition and volume numbers after the title of the book.

Bergoffen comma D period B period parenthesis 2006 parenthesis period Marriage comma autonomy comma and the feminine protest period In M period Simmons parenthesis Ed period parenthesis comma Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir colon Critical essays parenthesis pp period 92-112 parenthesis period Bloomington comma IN colon Indiana University Press period


Reference Entry (6.27, 6.29, 7.02.27)

Begin with the author of the entry, not the author or editor of the book.

With Author (7.02.27)

Haslum comma M period N period parenthesis 2004 parenthesis period Dyslexia period In R period Gregory parenthesis Ed period parenthesis comma The Oxford companion to the mind parenthesis 2nd ed period comma pp period 272-275 parenthesis period Oxford comma England colon Oxford University Press period

No Author (7.02.30)

Begin with the entry title.

Determinism period parenthesis 2003 parenthesis period In J period van Huyssteen comma N period Howell comma N period Gregersen comma W period Wildman comma & I period Barbour parenthesis Eds period parenthesis comma Encyclopedia of science and religion parenthesis 2nd ed period comma Vol period 1 comma pp period 216-217 parenthesis period New York comma NY colon Macmillan period

Entire Edited Book (7.02)

Put the editor in the author position followed by (Ed.).

 Neu comma J period parenthesis Ed period parenthesis period parenthesis 1992 parenthesis period The Cambridge companion to Freud period Cambridge comma England colon Cambridge University Press period

Specific Edition (7.02)

Include edition in parentheses after the title. Cite the edition as it is printed on the title page (2nd ed., Rev. ed., 2010 ed., etc.)

Seligman comma M period E period P period comma Walker comma E period F period comma & Rosenhan comma D period L period parenthesis 2001 parenthesis period Abnormal psychology parenthesis 4th ed period parenthesis period New York comma NY colon Norton period

Specific Volume (7.02.23)

Include the volume used in parentheses after the title.

Thompson comma M period J period parenthesis 2006 parenthesis period Paleontology period In H period Birx parenthesis Ed period parenthesis comma Encyclopedia of anthropology parenthesis Vol period 4 comma pp period 1805-1817 parenthesis period Thousand Oaks comma CA colon Sage period

Dissertation (7.05)

After the title, include the format ("Master's thesis"), database or URL, and the accession number.

From a Database (7.05.40)

McNiel comma D period S period parenthesis 2006 parenthesis period Meaning through narrative colon A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother parenthesis Master’s thesis parenthesis period Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database period parenthesis UMI No period 1434728 parenthesis

Online (7.05.42)

Bruckman comma A period parenthesis 1997 parenthesis period MOOSE Crossing colon Construction comma community comma and learning in a networked virtual world for kids parenthesis Doctoral dissertation comma Massachusetts Institute of Technology parenthesis period Retrieved from http colon//www-static dot cc dot gatech dot edu/~asb/thesis/