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APA Style (7th ed.)

Book, eBook, Dissertation

Basic structure for an entire book: 

 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle (X ed., Vol. X). Publisher Name. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx

 

You can leave out any parts that you don't have, like a DOI or the volume/edition.

Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 

Book with DOI Three to Twenty Authors  Entire Edited Book
Book without DOI E-Book or Audiobook from the Web, no DOI Specific Edition
Corporate Author or Organization Illustrated Children's Books Specific Volume
Two Authors Chapter or Section Dissertation
  Reference Entry Textbooks

Book with DOI (p. 321 in Manual)

Use this format for print or ebooks with a DOI. Include the author's last name and then first and middle initial.

Fessler comma D period parenthesis 2018 parenthesis period The energy disruption triangle colon Three sectors that will change how we generate comma use comma and store energy period John Wiley & Sons period <a href= “https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119347101 ” </a>

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The decision to add solar energy to a home depends on an individual's energy goals (Fessler, 2018).

Narrative Citation: Fessler (2018) outlines key points for the homeowner to consider in making the decision to choose solar or traditional.


Book without DOI (p. 321 in Manual)

If you have no DOI, use this format, whether it's a print book or an ebook from an academic database. 

Flanagan comma O period J period parenthesis 2007 parenthesis period The really hard problem colon Meaning in a material world period The MIT Press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Qualities of eudaimonia often represent what people want most in life, such as happiness and well-being (Flanagan, 2007).

In-text Citation: Owen Flanagan (2007) suggests that empirical inquiry is an excellent source for understanding human nature and well-being.


Corporate Author or Organization (p. 329-330 in Manual)

Put the organization's full name in the author position. If the publisher is the same as the author, you don't need to repeat it. 

American Psychological Association period parenthesis 2020 parenthesis period Publication manual of the American Psychological Association period parenthesis seventh ed period  parenthesis period <a href= “https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000 ” </a>

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Student work deserves the same attention to detail in referencing as does professional writing (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020).

Additional references later in the paper may simply include the acronym: (APA, 2020)

In-text Citation: According to the American Psychological Association (2020), the purpose of writing with consistent, predictable citation and formatting style is to allow readers to focus on content.


Two Authors

List up to twenty authors in the order they are listed on the title page. Use the ampersand (&) rather than the word "and." If there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author. 

Fant comma L period J period ampersand Fant comma B period B period open parenthesis 2011 close parenthesis period The American Sign Language phrase book open parenthesis third ed period close parenthesis period McGraw Hill period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: American Sign Language depends on light waves instead of sound waves (Fant & Fant, 2011).

Narrative Citation: Fant & Fant (2011) suggest approaching ASL in the same way one would approach learning any foreign language.

Three to Twenty Authors

List up to twenty authors in the order they are listed on the title page. Use the ampersand (&) rather than the word "and." If there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author. (p. 317 in Manual; see APA Style Blog for more)

Parkinson comma B period comma Fischer comma A period comma &amp; Manstead comma A period S period parenthesis 2005 parenthesis period Emotion in social relations colon Culture comma group comma and interpersonal processes period Psychology Press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Emotions serve important social and communicative functions (Parkinson et al., 2005).

Narrative Citation: Parkinson et al. (2005) try to understand emotion by examining the everyday social settings in which it operates.


Textbooks

Baumann comma J period F period comma Chard comma D period J period comma Cooks comma J period comma Cooper comma J period D period comma Gersten comma R period comma Lipson comma M period comma Morrow comma L period M period comma Pikulski comma J period J period comma Templeton comma S period comma Valencia comma S period W period comma Valentino comma C period comma & Vogt comma M period parenthesis 2014 parenthesis period Journeys Common Core: Grade 3 parenthesis Teacher's ed period comma Unit 5 parenthesis period Houghton Mifflin Harcourt periodIf there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author. 

In this example, Common Core is a proper name for the published set of standards, so it is capitalized. Add in the parentheses after the title, the edition, volume, unit, grade level designation, whatever is needed to identify what specifically you used.

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Recognizing names and distinguishing letters are literacy concepts that begin in the first week of kindergarten (Baumann et al., 2014).

Narrative Citation: Baumann et al. (2014) incorporate time for sharing extension texts in the Journeys Common Core scope and sequence.


eBook or Audiobook from the Web, No DOI (pp. 321-322 in Manual)

At the end, include the DOI. If there is no DOI, include the ​ebook's URL address if it is a stable URL. Do not include URLs from subscription-only databases, as these are not usually stable URLs. 

Kosinski, C. ( 2012 ). The worlds of Langston hughes: Modernism and translation in the Americas. Cornell University Press. stable URL

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Translators' cultural values and political agendas were suggested in their selection of Hughes's poetry (Kutzinski, 2012).

Narrative Citation: Kutzinski (2012) concludes that reading Langston Hughes convinced her that "differences need not divide—either in literature or in life" (p. 240).


 

Illustrated Children's Books (see more)

Illustrator Different from Author

Colleen comma M period parenthesis 2017 parenthesis period Love comma triangle parenthesis B period Shea comma Illus period parenthesis period Balzer Bray period

Illustrator Same as Author

Jaramillo comma S period parenthesis 2017 parenthesis period My little donkey: A Christmas song = Mi burrito colon Una canción Navideña parenthesis S period Jaramillo comma Illus period  parenthesis period Encantos Media Studios period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Love, Triangle recounts the tale of two friends, a circle and a square, and a triangle that initially creates a wedge in their friendship (Colleen, 2017).

Include only the author in the parenthetical citation. The following example recognizes both author and illustrator:

Narrative Citation: Author Marcie Colleen and illustrator Bob Shae's picture book Love, Triangle (2017) tells of a Circle, Square, and Triangle who learn to appreciate each other's strengths and differences and learn to be friends.


 

Chapter or Section (pp. 326-328 in Manual)

If you are citing a specific chapter or section of an edited book, list the author of that section first. Include information such as page numbers, edition and volume numbers after the title of the book.

Author's last name, author's first initial. publication year in parentheses. title of the article. The word in, editors first initial period last name ampersand second editor's first initial last name,  abbreviation for editors capital Eds period. title of the book in italics page numbers in parentheses with a pp. followed by a period publisher.  Fairley, J. (2013). There is no Revolution without a song colon open quotation New Song close quotation in Latin america period in b period kushke Ampersand b period Norton open parentheses eds period closed parenthesis, music and protest in 1968 open parentheses pp. 119 - 136 close parenthesis period Cambridge University press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The musical exchange between Chile and Cuba intensified in the early 1970s (Fairly, 2013).

Narrative Citation: Fairly (2013), notes that Chilean and Cuban musicians traveled between the two countries, intensifying the music scene in each.


 

Reference Entry (p. 328 in Manual)

With Author

Begin with the author of the entry, not the author or editor of the book. 

Entry author last name comma first initial period open parentheses publication year close parentheses. entry title period. The word “In” followed by the  editors initials and last name open parenthesis Eds period close parentheses comma reference work title and italics open parentheses small pp. page numbers close parentheses. Publisher.

Group Author

Begin with the entry title. “When an online reference work is continuously updated [...], use “n.d.” as the year of publication and include a retrieval date” (p. 328).

Group author period open parenthesis n period d period close parentheses period. entry title period “In” the reference work title in italics. retrieved month date, year, “from” URL

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The first known use of the term earworm was in 1802 (Merriam-Webster, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary (n.d.), the earliest use of the term earworm was in 1802.


 

Entire Edited Book

Put the editor in the author position followed by (Ed.) or (Eds.). See p. 322 in Manual.

Editor's last name coma first initial period 2nd initial period ampersand second  editors last name coma first and second initials open parentheses capital E small D small s period. The title of the edited book in italics. Publisher name. the DOI if available

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Religious literacy is defined as a set of competencies and skills that is continuously refined through cross-cultural engagement (Seiple & Hoover, 2022).

Narrative Citation: Seiple and Hoover (2022) contend that religious literacy is “vital to building societies and states of neighborly solidarity and civic fairness.”


Specific Edition

Include edition in parentheses after the title. Cite the edition as it is printed on the title page (2nd ed., Rev. ed., 2019 ed., etc.)

Chapter author last name coma initials open parentheses year close parenthesis period chapter title period in editors last name, first initials open parenthesis Eds period close parenthesis coma book title italicized open parentheses 3 r d Ed period comma pp period 468 dash 484 close parentheses period Publisher period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Family therapy is a good “fit” with traditional cultural values (Haboush, 2005).

Narrative Citation: Given the centrality of family, Haboush (2005) cautions that “insight-oriented” interventions may be incompatible with individuals who are more in tune with Arabic society.


 

Specific Volume 

Include the volume used in parentheses after the title.

Title of Entry period open parentheses publication year close parentheses. entry title period. The word “In” followed by the  editor’s initials and last name open parenthesis Ed period close parentheses comma reference work title in italics open parentheses V o l period coma small pp. page numbers close parentheses period Publisher period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: It wasn’t until 1971 that the first woman graduated with a Doctor of Music degree from the Julliard School (“Tan, Margaret Leng,” 2000).

Narrative Citation: According to Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (2000), Margaret Leng Tan not only performed as a pianist throughout the U. S. and Europe, but has the distinction of developing a repertory for toy piano.


 

Dissertation from a Database

P. 333 in Manual. After the title, include the publication number, format and school in square brackets.

Include the database name, but no URL since it is not accessible to the general public.

Author last name first initial period open parentheses year close parenthesis period dissertation title in italics open parentheses publication number if available close parentheses Open Bracket doctoral dissertation or masters thesis, name of institution awarding the degree close bracket period name of database period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: There is a need for tools to effectively provide task-related accommodations in the food service industry (Stokar, 2016).

In-text Citation: Stokar’s study (2016) distinguishes between work accommodation support and Deaf-hearing socialization strategies.

Dissertation Free Online

Include the archive name and the URL where it is accessible to the general public.

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Student veterans express that having values that differ from their civilian peers affects their connectedness with others on campus (Legreid, 2020).

Narrative Citation: Legreid (2020) conducted In-depth interviews with four United States combat veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan.