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APA Style

A guide to APA formatting, in-text citation, and the References list

Business Sources

Because the APA style manual does not provide examples for every single type of resource, these examples have been adapted for common business resources. Many business sources contain tables, charts, data sets, and other non-standard sources. If you are unsure of how to cite a source, ask your business librarian. General guidelines:

  • If no author, use a corporate author (e.g. company, association, or group responsible for the content).
  • If no publication date, use the abbreviation (n.d.) -- both in your References and your in-text citation -- for "no date."
  • Retrieval dates are only needed in two circumstances: if the content will change (e.g. financial data updated quarterly or yearly), or if there is no publication date (n.d.)
  • If the information is from a free website (such as a .gov website, i.e. not a subscription database) and the URL appears stable, include that. If the URL appears unstable (e.g. factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml#), shorten it to the website homepage (e.g. factfinder.census.gov). If it is from a subscription database, it is probably not a stable URL, so only include the database name.

 

Ad Forum Reference USA
Advertising Redbooks RIA Checkpoint
American FactFinder / U.S. Census Simmons OneView
Business Source Complete SWOT Analysis SRDS Media Solutions
Global Road Warrior Statista
IBIS World Value Line
Nexis Uni Website: Data Set
  Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS)

 

 


Ad Forum

Mekanism period (2013) period Introducing lil Pepsi colon Have some fun this Halloween! Retrieved from Adforum database period

 


Advertising Redbooks

U.S. Media Spend pages

Kantar Media is the author when citing the US Media Spend section of a company profile, and note that this section is updated quarterly, so do include the retrieval date.

Kantar Media period ( n period d period ) period The Humane Society of the United States colon Annual measured U period S period media spend period Retrieved June 22 comma 2017 from Advertising Redbooks database period

Other pages

         Red Books LLC period ( n period d period ) period The Humane Society of the United States period Retrieved from Advertising Redbooks database period

 


American FactFinder / U.S. Census

U period S period Census Bureau period (2015) period Madison city comma Wisconsin dash DP05 ACS demographics and housing estimates [Data] period 2011-2015 American community survey 5-year estimates period Retrieved from https colon //factfinder period census period gov

 

               U period S period Census Bureau period (2011) period QuickFacts colon Waukesha County comma Wisconsin [Data] period Retrieved from https colon //www dot census dot gov/quickfacts/table/PST045216/55133,00


Business Source Complete - SWOT Analysis

Marketline is the author of most of the SWOTs in our subscription. For SWOTs that may come from other databases, most often you are looking for a corporate/organization author.

          MarketLine period (2017 comma Feb period 24) period Burberry Group PLC SWOT analysis period [Company profile] period Retrieved from Business Source Complete database period

 


Global Road Warrior

Report with author

Some Global Road Warrior report pages have a Writer listed at the bottom of the page – if none listed, use Global Road Warrior as an author. 

       Williamson comma J period (n period d period) period Brazil colon Business culture dash Making decisions period Retrieved June 22 comma 2017 from Global Road Warrior database period

However, some subsections may be reprints from other sources -- e.g.,  the Human Rights Reports section is reprinted from the U.S. Department of State report:

Reprinted from elsewhere

         U period S period Department of State period (2016) period Mexico colon Human rights report period 2016 country reports on human rights practices period Retrieved from Global Road Warrior database period

 


IBIS World

Report with author

        Alvarez comma A period (2017 comma Jan period) period Bars & nightclubs in the US colon IBISWorld industry report 72241 period Retrieved from IBISWorld database period

No author

        IBISWorld period (2017 comma May) period Boat building in the US colon IBISWorld industry risk rating report 33661b period Retrieved from IBISWorld database period

 


Nexis Uni

screenshots showing the "from  ____" information in a Nexis Uni company profileThe information on a Nexis Uni company profile (dossier) comes from a variety of sources. Many sections, such as the SEC filings, Company Reports, Company Activities, News, & Legal, are all reprinted from other news or governmental sources, and should be cited showing the original author. In general, look at the bottom of pages for Copyright info or “from______” -- see some examples at right. Think logically about who would have created this info (e.g., SEC filings come from the company; company reports are generally from third parties; news is reprinted from typical newspapers or magazines) to decide who should be the author in your citation. Here are some possible examples:  

 

        Corporate Affiliations period (2017 comma June 16) period Whole Foods Market comma Inc period colon Brands period Retrieved from Nexis Uni database period

         Morningstar comma Inc period (2017 comma June 10) period Ruby Tuesday comma Inc period colon Income statement (Annual) period [Table] period Retrieved from Nexis Uni database period

        Ruby Tuesday comma Inc period (2016 comma Aug period 15) period Form 10 hyphen K period Retrieved from Nexis Uni database period


Reference USA

Company profile

Include retrieval dates here. Look in the Business Demographics section of a company profile for the Last Updated On: date.

       Infogroup comma Inc period (2017 comma Jan period) period Harney & Sons Tea Corp period Retrieved May 2 comma 2017 comma from ReferenceUSA database period

Dataset (List of companies or people)

         Infogroup comma Inc period (2017) period U period S period Consumers/Lifestyles period [Data] period Retrieved April 14 comma 2017 comma from ReferenceUSA database period

 


RIA Checkpoint

      RIA period (2016) period 2017 RIA federal tax handbook period Retrieved from RIA Checkpoint database period

 


Simmons OneView

      Simmons Research LLC period (2014) period Spring 2014 NHCS Adult Study 06-month [Data] period Retrieved March 16 comma 2017 from Simmons OneView database period

 


SRDS Media Solutions

For the profiles of any type of Publication, Radio, TV/Cable, Out-of-home, or Hispanic media with a profile in SRDS, include retrieval date as these are updated regularly:

       Kantar Media period (n period d period) period Beverage World [Publication profile] period Business Publication Media period Retrieved Feb period 9, 2017 from SRDS Media Solutions database period

DMA Profiles, Maps, and SQAD ratings

These PDFs should all have dates: 

       Kantar Media period (2016) period Milwaukee comma WI [DMA profile] period Retrieved from SRDS Media Solutions database period

 


screenshot of the Source and Release boxes to the right of a Statista chart

Statista

Look in the “Source” box to the right of Statista's charts for most of the citation information. Sometimes there are multiple sources for one chart; if so, treat it just like you would a normal multiple-author situation on an article. For date, check the Release or Further Info boxes (see right); but if not listed, use (n.d.) for No Date.

       EY comma ARDA International Foundation comma ARDA comma & Interval Leisure period (2016 comma June) period Sales of vacation timeshares in the U.S. from 2000 hyphen 2015 (in billion U period S period dollars) [Chart] period Retrieved from Statista database period

 

 


Value Line 

Value Line content (e.g. stock prices, some ratings) is updated almost daily, so do include the retrieval date here. The best “semi-permanent” publication date is the date of the most recent quarterly report – see the top right or bottom right corner for the PDF dates. 

       Value Line period (2017 comma March 31) period Apple comma Inc period Retrieved from Value Line database period

 


Website: Data Set

        Pew Hispanic Center period (2004) period Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures colon A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book] period Retrieved from http colon // www dot pewhispanic dot org/datasets/

 


Wharton Research Data Services: Compustat, CRSP, etc. 

For Compustat:

Compustat Industrial [Annual Data]. (Years). Available: Standard & Poor's/Compustat [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Service.

For CRSP:

CRSP Stocks. (Years). Available: Center For Research in Security Prices. Graduate School of Business. University of Chicago [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Service.

CRSP Mutual Funds. (Years). Available: Center For Research in Security Prices. Graduate School of Business. University of Chicago [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Service.