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Turabian Style

Shortened Notes

Unless a professor requires full citations in every note, you may provide the full citation in the first note citing a source, and then use shortened citations in subsequent notes.

The first note citing the source should be the full citation:

33 period Malcolm Gladwell comma The Tipping Point colon How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference  parenthesis Boston colon Little comma Brown comma 2000 parenthesis  comma 64-65 period

When one citation to the same work immediately follows another on the same page, "Ibid." can be used in the latter note, although you can use the other shortened note forms instead.

34 period Ibid period comma 60 period

If reference is to a work already cited in full but not in the note immediately preceding, and only one work of the author has been used in your notes, then just the author's last name is needed. If the work has an editor instead of an author, do not add ed.

35 period Gladwell comma 60 period

If two or more works of the same author have been cited, use the author's last name and a brief title (up to four distinctive words from the full title).

36 period Gladwell comma Tipping Point comma 85-90 period