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Turabian Style


Examples in this guide are provided for footnote citations (N) and bibliography (B). Footnotes and bibliography format contain most of the same elements but are formatted slightly differently.  For example, notes use paragraph (first line) indentation, and the bibliography entries use hanging indents. If you cite one source multiple times, you may use shortened notes for citations after the first one -- see directions here.

Jump to specific examples in the table below: 

Personal Interviews Online Interviews

Personal Interviews

Interviews are cited only in notes, unless they are critical to an argument or frequently cited. Include location and date of the interview if known, as well as the location of any recordings or transcripts.


26 period David Shields comma interview by author comma Seattle comma July 22 comma 2016 period



27 period Benjamin Spock comma interview by Milton J period E period Senn comma November 20 comma 1974 comma interview 67A comma transcript comma Senn Oral History Collection comma National Library of Medicine comma Bethesda comma MD period


Online Interviews 

Include the program or publication. Provide the date of the interview, or the air date or date of publication. If accessed online, end with a URL.


28 period Bernie Sanders comma interview by Rachel Maddow comma The Rachel Maddow Show comma September 18 comma 2015 comma on MSNBC comma video comma 19:51 comma  period