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Economics

This guide is a starting point for resources relevant to Economics.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism involves taking credit for work that is not one's own. Below are some resources that can help you avoid plagiarism.

For help citing all the unusual Business databases, visit this page: http://libguides.uww.edu/apa/business

Citing a Journal/Magazine Article with DOI

Three or more authors 

List each author in the order they appear in the article. Use an ampersand (&) rather than "and" between the last two.

If you have more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors, then ..., then the last author (so there is a total of 20 names in the citation). 

General format: First author last name comma first initials period comma second author last name comma first initials period ampersand third author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics journal title comma volume number non italics open parenthesis issue number close parenthesis comma page number period digital object identifier or D O I Example description: Wenneker comma C period P period J period comma Wigboldus comma D period H period J period comma ampersand Spears comma R period open parenthesis 2005 close parenthesis period Biased language use in stereotype maintenance colon The role of encoding and goals period in italcis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology comma 89 non italics open parenthesis 4 close parenthesis comma 504 hyphen 516 period https colon forward slash forward slash doi period org forward slash 10 period 1037 forward slash 0022 hyphen 3514 period 89 period 4 period 504

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Group membership may determine the bias of language used by an individual describing a specific event (Wenneker et al., 2005).

Narrative Citation: According to Wenneker et al., (2005) an individual's group membership may determine the bias of language used to describe a specific event.


 

Citing Journal/Magazine Articles without DOI

Online or Print, no DOI  (p. 317 in Manual)

Italicize the journal title and volume number, but not the issue number in parentheses. 

    General format: Author last name comma first initials open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics journal title comma volume number non italics open parenthesis issue number close parenthesis comma page number period Example description: Aparicio comma F period R period open parenthesis 1999 close parenthesis  Reading the  open quotations Latino close quotations  in Latino studies colon Toward re hyphen imagining our academic location period in italics Discourse comma 21 non italics open parenthesis 3 close parenthesis comma 3 hyphen 18 period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The limited academic presence of Latino scholars has led to non-Latino administrators and colleagues having a greater impact on Latino Studies programs (Aparicio, 1999).

Narrative Citation: According to Aparicio (1999), the limited academic presence of Latino scholars translates to non-Latino administrators and colleagues having a greater impact on Latino Studies programs.


 

Citing Webpages

Webpage (p. 350 in Manual)

Normally, do NOT include the retrieval date. The only exception is for content that is unarchived, has no date, and is easily or frequently changed (e.g., transitory forms of social media, live-update type of web content).

General format: Author last name comma first initial period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics webpage title period or punctuation non italics source period webpage U R L Example description: Goddard comma I period open parenthesis 2023 comma October 12 close parenthesis period in italics What does friendship look like in America question mark Pew Research Center period https colon forward slash forward slash www period pewresearch period org forward slash short hyphen reads forward slash 2023 forward slash 10 forward slash 12 forward slash what hyphen does hyphen friendship hyphen look hyphen like hyphen in hyphen america forward slash

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: A Majority of adults in the United States are more likely to talk about their work and family than about mental health with their friends (Goddard, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According Goddard (2023), a majority of adults in the United States are more likely to talk about their work and family than about mental health with their friends.


Citing Webpage with corporate author

Corporate or Group Author 

Author same as the Source

It is more common to see a corporate author who is also the publisher of the webpage. In such cases, leave out the Source or Publisher element if it is virtually the same as the Author. 

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period in italics webpage title period non italics webpage U R L Example description: U period S period Department of Homeland Security period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Surge capacity force non italics period https colon forward slash forward slash www period dhs period gov forward slash surge hyphen capacity hyphen force

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Surge Capacity Force consists of federal employees who volunteer to support FEMA during a catastrophic disaster (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: According to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (n.d.), the Surge Capacity Force consists of federal employees who volunteer to support FEMA during a catastrophic disaster.


Corporate office, organization, or government agency as an author 

Often for governmental sources, you will have multiple "layers" of offices in the Source / Publisher position, separated by a comma. The most immediate office responsible for writing the content is the Author, and the parent offices are the Source. 

General format: Corporate author period open parenthesis date close parenthesis period in italics webpage title period non italics source period webpage U R L Example description: United Nations Population Division period open parenthesis n period d period close parenthesis period in italics Family planning period non italics United Nations period  https colon forward slash forward slash www period un period org forward slash development forward slash desa forward slash pd forward slash content forward slash family hyphen planning hyphen 0

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Data on family planning practices, and contraceptives are important to comprehending regional and global fertility levels (United Nations Population Division, n.d.).

Narrative Citation: The United Nations Population Division (n.d.) states that data on family planning practices and contraceptives are important to comprehending regional and global fertility levels.


Citing Books

Book without DOI (p. 321 in Manual)

If you have no DOI, use this format, whether it's a print book or an ebook from an academic database. 

General format: Author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication year close parenthesis period in italics book title period non italics publisher name period. Example description: Flanagan comma O period  J period open parenthesis 2007 close parenthesis period in italics The really hard problem colon Meaning in a material world period non italics The MIT Press period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: Qualities of eudaimonia often represent what people want most in life, such as happiness and well-being (Flanagan, 2007).

In-text Citation: Owen Flanagan (2007) suggests that empirical inquiry is an excellent source for understanding human nature and well-being.


Citing Newspaper Articles

Newspaper (p. 320 in Manual)

Online with no DOI

Include the stable URL. Page numbers, volume, and issue may be omitted if not available. 

General format: author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title period in italics newspaper title period freely accessible URL Example description: Hu comma W period open parenthesis 2009 comma September 11 close parenthesis period Foreign languages fall as schools look for cuts period in italics The New York Times period non italics https colon forward slash forward slash www period nytimes period com forward slash 2009 forward slash 09 forward slash 13 forward slash education forward slash 13language period html

  • Use this format for articles from both print newspapers as well as newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.
  • Use the format for websites for citing articles from a news website. Common examples are BBC News, BET News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation:  Foreign language instruction supporters would prefer the integration of lessons into the core curriculum thus preventing their easy removal during budget cuts (Hu, 2009).

Narrative Citation: Hu (2009) reports that supporters of foreign language instruction would prefer lessons be integrated into the core curriculum to prevent their easy removal during budget cuts. 


Print or from a Database with no DOI 

If an article appears on discontinuous pages, list each of the page numbers where it appears. For multiple pages, use "pp." Most newspapers have a month and/or date, so include that.

General format: author last name comma first initials period open parenthesis publication date close parenthesis period article title  period in italics newspaper title period  Example description: Fidlin comma D period open parenthesis 2023 comma December 21 close parenthesis period Police Chief to send letter on migrant crisis period in italics  Whitewater Register period

In-text Citation

Parenthetical Citation: The recent migrant crisis has caused the police chief to reach out to state and federal elected officials for financial support (Fidlin, 2023).

Narrative Citation: According to Fidlin (2023) the police chief has reached out to state and federal elected officials for financial support to aid in the recent migrant crisis.