Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
site header image

Communication Sciences & Disorders 272: Phonetics


Wolfram, W., & Schilling-Estes, N. (2006). American English: Dialects and variation (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell image

Article or Chapter from an Edited Book:

Bernestein, C. (2006). Fading future for ferhoodled English (Pennsylvania German). In W. Wolfram & B. Ward (Eds.), American voices: How dialects differ from coast to coast (pp. 258-69). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

E-books (Electronic Books)

"Provide the home page of the online library (Google Books, EBSCO Ebooks, ProQuest Ebook Central, etc.) rather than the full URL. Books are easily available by search, and some sites require log-in credentials" (APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, p. 17).

Example for a reference ebook entry found in Gale Virtual Reference Library:

The Amish. (2009). In T. Gall & J. Hobby (Eds.), Worldmark encyclopedia of cultures and daily life (Vol. 2, pp. 48-54). Retrieved from

Example for a chapter in an ebook found in EBook Central:

Algeo, J. (2008). The origins of Southern English. In K. King, & L. Fogle, & N. Schilling-Estes (Eds.), Sustaining linguistic diversity: Endangered and minority languages and language varieties (pp. 6-16). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Retrieved from

Encyclopedia/Reference Article

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Place article title in author position when there is no author listed. If the example above had no author listed, the citation would be:

Relativity. (1993). In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Multiple Volumes

Burchfield, R. W. (Ed.). (2008). English in Britain and overseas: Origins and development (Vol. 5). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Example of an Online Reference Book:

Mann, K. (2008). French Americans. In R. Schaefer (Ed.), Encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and society. 

Journal Articles

Journal Article - No DOI Assigned

The original article was located using an eBSCO database. Click here to see the original record. The URL is to the homepage of the journal - not the database link.

Anderson, V. M. (2013). A working description of Pennsylvania Dutchfied English and South Central Pennsylvania English. American Speech, 88, 19-42. Retrieved from

Journal Article - With DOI (original article)

Velleman, S. L., & Pearson, B. Z. (2010). Differentiating speech sound disorders from phonological dialect differences: Implications for assessment and intervention. Topics in Language Disorders30(3), 176-188. doi:10.1097/TLD.0b013e3181efc378

Newspaper Blog Post

This post was originally found using ProQuest Newsstand. Links to freely available formats, when available, are preferrable to subscription database links, so in this example, a Google search for the original was performed.

Strauss, V. (2013, October 28). Five stereotypes about poor families and education [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Newspaper Article (Online)

Give the home page URL of the newspaper when the online version of the article is available on a free webpage, to avoid nonworking URL's.  (APA Guide to Electronic Resources, 9, p 14)

This news article was originally found using Newspaper Source Plus (EBSCO) .

Weitzel, J. (2009, February 20). Going DUTCH: The rumors of the death of Pennsylvania German culture have been greatly exaggerated. Reading Eagle (PA). Retrieved from 



Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [DVD]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Streaming video (freely available, such as YouTube, TED Talks, etc.)

Slingshot fun [Video file]. (2007, January 29). Retrieved from 

Streaming video from a subscription source such as Netflix or Films on Demand 
"If the content is behind a log-in screen or a paywall (e.g., Netflix), or if the content is easily available by search, provide the home page URL of the site to avoid nonworking URLs." The example below is from Films on Demand. APA Style Guide to Electronic References, p.25)

BBC (Producer). (2009). Why do we talk? The science of speech [Video File]. Retrieved from

Cran, W. (Director & Producer) & MacNeil, R. (Producer). (2005). Do you speak American? Out west [Video File]. Retrieved from


According to  the APA Style Guide for Electronic Resources, "when citing an entire website or page, and not any document in particular on that website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in the text (no reference list entry is needed)" (APA, 2006, p. 32)

However, your professor may prefer to see any websites used for assignments listed in a references page. In this case, use the following format:

A Specific Page on a Website:

Fought, C. (2005). American varieties: Talking with mi gente [Web page]. Do you speak American? Retrieved from

An Entire Website:

Department of English, West Virginia University. (2016). West Virginia Dialect Project. Retrieved from 

APA Video Tutorials

To review the class presentation, click here.

For tutorials with audio, watch the YouTube videos below:

APA Citations: Go to the Source!

Go to the source for accurate style information. Copies are available online, in Reference, and in the Main Collection. Stop at the Reference Desk for assistance.