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English 102: Citing

This is a general library guide for English 102 courses

Why Cite?

Documenting your sources is a necessity, which:

  1. Allows readers to find your sources;
  2. Provides evidence for your arguments;
  3. Adds credibility to your work;
  4. Avoids plagiarism, the consequence of which could be an allegation of academic misconduct. This could result disciplinary sanctions such as an oral reprimand, redoing your assignment, losing points off your grade, failing the class, being expelled, etc., all of which depend in part on the severity of the offense. For details, see the Avoiding Academic Misconduct Procedures web document and related documents such as Disciplinary Procedures: Student Academic Misconduct: UWS Chapter 14.

MLA Style

Whether you choose to quote, summarize, or paraphrase sources you use in your research paper, you must cite each one. For rules and examples in MLA 8th ed. style, look here:

Want to jump start your list of references? This Citation Formatters guide has some tools you can use...just remember they are not foolproof. You will need to review your citations to make sure they are correct.

MLA Citation Outlines

Note: These tips are from the MLA Handbook (8th ed.).

Each entry should include the following core elements, when known, which should be taken from the source's title page or the first page of a periodical article or webpage:

  • author name(s).
  • title of source.
  • title of container,
  • other contributors,
  • version,
  • number,
  • publisher,
  • publication date,
  • location.

You may find that you need to combine several examples to fit what you are citing.  

Book with two authors

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

Journal article, online or in database, doi (preferred over URL)

Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

Journal article, online or in database, no doi, stable link if available or, if not, other available URL

Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.

Journal article, print

Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.” PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Lecture

Brieger, Brian. “Lecture 3: Recruitment and Involvement of Trainees.” Management 320 course. 28 Jan. 2014, U of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Address.

Citing Criticism from Literature Criticism Online and Artemis Literary Sources in MLA Style

Holladay, Hillary. “Narrative Space in Ann Petry’s Country Place.” Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, edited by Linda Pavlovski and Scott Darga, vol. 112, Gale, 2002, pp. 356-62. Literature Criticism Online, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=JVPFJB936361473&v=2.1&u=h2o&it=r&p=GLS&sw=w&asid=ddb4aa8a6683d6872d5e69b99859ca71. Originally published in Xavier Review, vol. 16, no. 1, 1996, pp. 21-35.

APA Style

Whether you choose to quote, summarize, or paraphrase sources in your research paper, you must cite each source you use. For rules and examples, look here:

Want to jump start your list of references? This Citation Formatters guide has some tools you can use...just remember they are not foolproof. You will need to review your citations to make sure they are correct.

Turabian Style

Whether you choose to quote, summarize, or paraphrase sources you use in your research paper, you must cite each one. For rules and examples, look here:

  • A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate Turabian, 8th ed. 2013. Reference Desk LB2369 .T8 2013
  • Citing References: Turabian Style - (Andersen Library, UW-Whitewater)
  • Turabian Style (Web guide) - (Andersen Library, UW-Whitewater)

Want to jump start your list of references? This Citation Formatters guide has some tools you can use...just remember they are not foolproof. You will need to review your citations to make sure they are correct.

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