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Business Law: Harvard Bluebook Citation

This guide is a starting point for Business Law resources.

Citing Using Harvard Bluebook

Federal court abbreviations

Supreme Court:

Court Abbreviation
United States Supreme Court                            U.S.       



Federal Courts of Appeal: 

Court                   Abbreviation                  
First Circuit                                                             1st Cir.
Second Circuit 2d Cir.
Third Circuit 3d Cir.
Fourth Circuit 4th Cir.
Fifth Circuit 5th Cir.
Sixth Circuit 6th Cir.
Seventh Circuit 7th Cir.
Eighth Circuit 8th Cir.
Ninth Circuit 9th Cir.
Tenth Circuit 10th Cir.
Eleventh Circuit                      11th Cir.
D.C. Circuit D.C. Cir.
Federal Circuit Fed. Cir.



U.S. District Court: 

Court                                     Abbreviations
Middle District of Alabama                                  M.D. Ala.
Northern District of Alabama N.D. Ala.
Southern District of Alabama S.D. Ala.
District of Alaska D. Alaska
District of Arizona D. Ariz.
Eastern District of Arkansas E.D. Ark.
Western District of Arkansas W.D. Ark.
Central District of California C.D. Cal.
Eastern District of California E.D. Cal.
Northern District of California N.D. Cal.
Southern District of California S.D. Cal.
District of the Canal Zone D.C.Z. (The D.C.Z. ceased to exist on 3/31/1982)
District of Colorado D. Colo.
District of Connecticut D. Conn.
District of Delaware D. Del.
District of D.C. D.D.C.
Middle District of Florida M.D. Fla.
Northern District of Florida N.D. Fla.
Southern District of Florida S.D. Fla.
Middle District of Georgia M.D. Ga.
Northern District of Georgia N.D. Ga.
Southern District of Georgia S.D. Ga.
District of Guam D. Guam
District of Hawaii D. Haw.
District of Idaho D. Idaho
Central District of Illinois C.D. Ill.
Northern District of Illinois N.D. Ill.
Northern District of Indiana N.D. Ind.
Southern District of Indiana S.D. Ind.
Northern District of Iowa N.D. Iowa
Southern District of Iowa S.D. Iowa
District of Kansas D. Kan.
Eastern District of Kentucky E.D. Ky.
Western District of Kentucky W.D. Ky.
Eastern District of Louisiana E.D. La.
Middle District of Louisiana M.D. La.
Western District of Louisiana W.D. La.
District of Maine D. Me.
District of Maryland D. Md.
District of Massachusetts D. Mass.
Eastern District of Michigan E.D. Mich.
Western District of Michigan W.D. Mich.
District of Minnesota D. Minn.
Northern District of Mississippi N.D. Miss.
Southern District of Mississippi S.D. Miss.
Eastern District of Missouri E.D. Mo.
Western District of Missouri W.D. Mo.
District of Montana D. Mont.
District of Nebraska D. Neb.
District of Nevada D. Nev.
District of New Hampshire D.N.H.
District of New Jersey D.N.J.
District of New Mexico D.N.M.
Eastern District of New York E.D.N.Y.
Northern District of New York N.D.N.Y.
Southern District of New York S.D.N.Y.
Western District of New York W.D.N.Y.
Eastern District of North Carolina E.D.N.C.
Middle District of North Carolina M.D.N.C.
Western District of North Carolina W.D.N.C.
District of North Dakota D.N.D.
District of the Northern Mariana Islands D.N. Mar. Is.
Northern District of Ohio N.D. Ohio
Southern District of Ohio S.D. Ohio
Eastern District of Oklahoma E.D. Okla.
Northern District of Oklahoma N.D. Okla.
Western District of Oklahoma W.D. Okla.
District of Oregon D. Or.
Eastern District of Pennsylvania E.D. Pa.
Middle District of Pennsylvania M.D. Pa.
Western District of Pennsylvania W.D. Pa.
District of Puerto Rico D.P.R.
District of Rhode Island D.R.I.
District of South Carolina D.S.C.
District of South Dakota D.S.D.
Eastern District of Tennessee E.D. Tenn.
Middle District of Tennessee M.D. Tenn.
Western District of Tennessee W.D. Tenn.
Eastern District of Texas E.D. Tex.
Northern District of Texas N.D. Tex.
Southern District of Texas S.D. Tex.
Western District of Texas W.D. Tex.
District of Utah D. Utah
District of Vermont D. Vt.
Eastern District of Virginia E.D. Va.
Western District of Virginia W.D. Va.
District of the Virgin Islands D.V.I.
Eastern District of Washington E.D. Wash.
Western District of Washington W.D. Wash.
Northern District of West Virginia N.D.W. Va.
Southern District of West Virginia S.D.W. Va.
Eastern District of Wisconsin E.D. Wis.
Western District of Wisconsin W.D. Wis.
District of Wyoming D. Wyo.

State court abbreviations

State Courts of Appeal


Alabama Supreme Court Ala.
Alabama Court of Civil Appeals Ala. Civ. App.
Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals        Ala. Crim. App.
Alaska Supreme Cout Alaska
Alaska Court of Appeals Alaska Ct. App.


Arizona Surpreme Courts Ariz.
Arizona Court of Appeals Ariz. Ct. App. 


Arkansas Supreme Court Ark.
Arkansas Court of Appeals Ark. Ct. App.


California Supreme Court Cal.

California Court of Appeal

Cal. Ct. App.



Colorado Supreme Court Colo.
Colorado Court of Appeals Colo. App.


Connecticut Supreme Court Conn.
Connecticut Appellate Court Conn. App. Ct.


Delaware Supreme Court Del.
Delaware Court of Chancery Del. Ch.


District of Columbia Court of Appeals D.C.


Florida Supreme Court Fla.
Florida District Court of Appeal

Fla. Dist. Ct. App.



Georgia Supreme Court Ga.
Georgia Court of Appeals

Ga. Ct. App.


Hawaii Supreme Court Haw.
Hawaii Court of Appeals Haw. Ct. App.


Idaho Supreme Court Idaho
Idaho Court of Appeals Idaho Ct. App.


Illinois Supreme Court Ill.
Illinois Appellate Court Ill. App. Ct.


Indiana Supreme Court Ind.
Indiana Court of Appeals Ind. Ct. App.


Iowa Supreme Court Iowa
Iowa Court of Appeals Iowa Ct. App.


Kansas Supreme Court Kan.
Kansas Court of Appeals Kan. Ct. App.


Kentucky Supreme Court Ky.
Kentucky Court of Appeals Ky. Ct. App.


Louisiana Supreme Court La.
Louisiana Court of Appeal La. Ct. App.


Maine Supreme Court Me.
Maine No appellate court


Maryland Supreme Court Md.
Maryland Court of Special Appeals Md. Ct. Spec. App.


Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court       Mass.
Massachusetts Appeals Court Mass. App. Ct.


Michigan Supreme Court Mich.
Michigan Court of Appeals Mich. Ct. App.


Minnesota Supreme Court Minn.
Minnesota Court of Appeals Minn. Ct. App.


Mississippi Supreme Court  Miss.
Mississippi Court of Appeals Miss. Ct. App.


Missouri Supreme Court Mo.
Missouri Court of Appeals Mo. Ct. App.


Montana Supreme Court Mont.
Montana No appellate court


Nebraska Supreme Court Neb.
Nebraska Court of Appeals Neb. Ct. App.


Nevada Supreme Court Nev.
Nevada No appellate court


New Hampshire Supreme Court N.H.
New Hampshire No appellate court


New Jersey Supreme Court N.J.
New Jersey Superior Court, Appellate Divsion       N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div.
New Mexico Supreme Court N.M.
New Mexico Court of Appeals N.M. Ct. App.


New York Court of Appeals N.Y.
New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division N.Y. App. Div.


North Carolina Supreme Court N.C.
North Carolina Court of Appeals N.C. Ct. App.


North Dakota Supreme Court


Court of Appeals of North Dakota

N.D. Ct. App.



Ohio Supreme Court Ohio
Ohio Court of Appeals Ohio Ct. App.


Oklahoma Supreme Court   Okla.
Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals Okla. Crim. App.
Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals Okla. Civ. App.


Oregon Supreme Court Or.
Oregon Court of Appeals Or. Ct. App.


Pennsylvania Supreme Court Pa.
Pennsylvania Superior Court Pa. Super. Ct.


Rhode Island Supreme Court R.I.
Rhode Island No appellate court


South Carolina Supreme Court S.C.
South Carolina Court of Appeals S.C. Ct. App.


South Dakota Supreme Court S.D.
South Dakota No appellate court


Tennessee Supreme Court Tenn.
Tennessee Court of Appeals Tenn. Ct. App.


Texas Supreme Court Tex.
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals Tex. Crim. App.
Texas Courts of Appeals Tex. App.


Utah Supreme Court Utah
Utah Court of Appeals Utah Ct. App.


Vermont Supreme Court Vt.
Vermont No appellate court
Virginia Supreme Court Va. 
Virginia Court of Appeals Va. Ct. App.


Washington Supreme Court Wash.
Washington Court of Appeals Wash. Ct. App.


West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals W. Va.
West Virginia    No appellate court


Wisconsin Supreme Court Wis.
Wisconsin Court of Appeals Wis. Ct. App.


Wyoming Supreme Court Wyo.

No appellate court


Many thanks to University of Akron's excellent Bluebook Citation guide for much of the content on this page!