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Turabian Style

Primary Sources

Examples in this guide are provided for footnote citations (N) and bibliography (B). Footnotes and bibliography format contain most of the same elements but are formatted slightly differently.  For example, notes use paragraph (first line) indentation, and the bibliography entries use hanging indents. If you cite one source multiple times, you may use shortened notes for citations after the first one -- see directions here.

Jump to specific examples in the table below: 

Manuscripts & Papers Government Publication Interviews Newspaper Article

 

Manuscripts & Papers

If more than one item from a collection is cited in notes, cite the collection in the bibliography, not the individual items. Identify document types other than letter, such as telegram, memorandum, etc. (Letter may be omitted, as it is understood if no other document type is specified.)

End with a URL for materials consulted online.

N: 

18 period Century Pen Company financial report comma 1922 comma box 1 comma folder 9 comma James Nelson Humphrey Papers comma University Archives ampersand Area Research Center comma Harold Andersen Library comma University of Wisconsin hyphen Whitewater comma  Whitewater comma WI period

B: 

Humphrey comma James Nelson comma Papers period University Archives ampersand Area Research Center comma Harold Andersen Library comma University of Wisconsin hyphen Whitewater comma Whitewater comma WI period

 


Government Publication 

N:

20 period Select Committee on Homeland Security comma Homeland Security Act of 2002 comma 107th Cong period comma 2d sess period comma 2002 comma HR Rep period 107 hyphen 609 comma pt period 1 comma 11 hyphen 12 period

B:

US Congress comma House of Representatives comma Select Committee on Homeland Security period Homeland Security Act of 2002 period 107th Cong period comma 2d sess period comma 2002 period HR Rep period 107 hyphen 609 comma pt period 1 period

 


Interviews 

Interviews are cited only in notes, unless they are critical to an argument or frequently cited. Include location and date of the interview if known, as well as the location of any recordings or transcripts.

N:

26 period David Shields comma interview by author comma Seattle comma July 22 comma  2016 period

B:

 

Multimedia or Online format: 

Include the program or publication. Provide the date of the interview, or the air date or date of publication. If accessed online, end with a URL.

N:

28 period Bernie Sanders comma interview by Rachel Maddow comma The Rachel Maddow Show comma September 18 comma 2015 comma on MSNBC comma video comma 19 colon 51 comma  <a href= “https://youtu.be/8jV4sv9waB0” </a> period

B: