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Turabian Style

Audio/Visual

Examples in this guide are provided for footnote citations (N) and bibliography (B). Footnotes and bibliography format contain most of the same elements but are formatted slightly differently.  For example, notes use paragraph (first line) indentation, and the bibliography entries use hanging indents. If you cite one source multiple times, you may use shortened notes for citations after the first one -- see directions here.

Jump to specific examples in the table below: 

Photographs Movie & Video Radio & TV Sound Recording

 

Photographs

Cite photographs only in footnotes. Include the name of the artist, title of the artwork in italics, date of creation (precede date “ca.” if approximate), and name of institution that houses it, including location.  For images found online, include a URL.

N: 

28 period  Ansel Adams comma North Dome comma Basket Dome comma Mount Hoffman comma Yosemite comma ca period 1935 comma Smithsonian American Art Museum comma Renwick Gallery comma Washington comma DC comma http://edan.si.edu/saam/id/object/1994.91.1  period

 


Movie & Video

N: Include information about contributors such as writers, actors, and producers, if relevant to your discussion, in notes. Date may be the year a movie is released, or created, or otherwise made available. If sources are viewed online, end with a URL.

29 period Glory comma directed by Edward Zwick comma featuring Matthew Broderick comma Denzel Washington comma and Morgan Freeman  parenthesis TriStar Pictures comma 2007 parenthesis  period

B: The bibliography entry may begin with the title or the director.

Glory period Directed by Edward Zwick period TriStar Pictures comma 2007 period

Online: 

If sources are viewed online, end with a URL.

N: 

30 period Rosie the Riveter colon Real Women Workers in World War II comma  parenthesis Library of Congress comma 2003 parenthesis  comma MP4 video comma https://www.loc.gov/item/webcast-3350 period

B: The bibliography entry may begin with the title or the director.

Rosie the Riveter colon Real Women Workers in World War II period Library of Congress comma 2003 period MP4 video period 14 min period comma 1 sec period https://www.loc.gov/item/webcast-3350  period

 

 


Radio or Television Programs

Additional information, such as an episode number, may be included. 

N:

31 period  quotation mark What It's Like To Be A Part Of The 'Vanishing Middle Class' comma quotation mark  featuring Mat Johnson comma Fresh Air comma on NPR comma June 22 comma 2016 comma https://www.npr.org/2016/06/22/482135775/what-its-like-to-be-a-part-of-the-vanishing-middle-class  period

B: In the bibliography, radio and television programs are usually cited by the title of the program or series.

Fresh Air period  quotation mark What It's Like To Be A Part Of The 'Vanishing Middle Class' period  quotation mark  Featuring Mat Johnson period Aired June 22 comma 2016 comma on NPR period https://www.npr.org/2016/06/22/482135775/what-its-like-to-be-a-part-of-the-vanishing-middle-class period

 


Sound Recordings

In the bibliography, list musical recordings under either the name of the composer or performer/conductor, depending on which is more important for your argument. If the source is accessed online, end with a URL. 

N:

32 period Igor Stravinsky comma The Rite of Spring; Petrushka comma New York Philharmonic comma conducted by Leonard Bernstein comma recorded January 20 comma 1958 comma and May 5 comma 1969 comma Sony Classical SMK 47629 comma 1993 comma CD period

B:

Stravinsky comma Igor period The Rite of Spring semicolon Petrushka period Conducted by Leonard Bernstein period Recorded with the New York Philharmonic comma January 20 comma 1958 comma and May 5 comma 1969 period Sony Classical SMK 47629 comma 1993 period CD period