Examples in this guide are provided for footnote citations (N) and bibliography (B). Footnotes and bibliography format contain most of the same elements but are formatted slightly differently. For example, notes use paragraph (first line) indentation, and the bibliography entries use hanging indents. If you cite one source multiple times, you may use shortened notes for citations after the first one -- see directions here.
Jump to specific examples in the table below:
|Journal Articles||Magazine Articles||Newspaper Articles|
Omit an initial The from the titles of journals, magazines, and English-language newspapers.
When articles are consulted online, end with the name of a database or URL. If earlier-style DOIs are on the articles (e.g., doi:10.1086/429704), create the URL by appending it to https://doi.org/ (e.g., https://doi.org/10.1086/429704).
N: List author's name in standard order (first name first).
B: Include the author's surname and then first name and middle initial.
Put the first-listed author's name in inverted order (last name first). Names of any additional author should follow and not be inverted. Use "and" rather than & or other formats to separate author names.
In most cases, newspaper articles are cited in notes but not bibliographies, unless they are critical to an argument or frequently cited. Page numbers are omitted. Articles read online should include a URL, or the name of the commercial database used.
When the name of a local newspaper does not include the name of the city it may be added to the official title, and you also may add the state or province in parentheses. For foreign newspapers, give the name of the city (or for national-level papers, the country) in parentheses after the title. For example, Saint Paul (Alberta or AB) Journal; Times (UK).