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Geography 250: Geography of Wisconsin: Format & Citation

Prof. Gartner's Instructions About Format and Citations


Your essay should be about 5 to 8 pages of text, excluding figures, tables, bibliography, and any other ancillary materials. Text should be typed in a 12 point font, double-spaced, and have one-inch margins.


One of the most important components of your research is proper citation. The basic principle for citation is that the reader should be able to quickly find and independently assess information sources. Frequent and detailed citations enhance your authority, document your efforts, corroborate your arguments, highlight your contributions, and allow the reader to access new information. Infrequent and/or vague citations are a red flag for sloppy scholarship or, worse, plagiarism.

Please use inline citations that list the last name of author, the date, and the page number(s) within parentheses. An example of a correct citation format is:

(Doe 2011, 34).

You may use the author's name within a sentence so long as it is followed by the date and the page numbers within parentheses:

Jane Doe (2011, 73-74) argues …

Nearly all text citations should include the page number, or numbers, from an article or book. The full reference for all citations must be listed in the bibliography.

When citing the internet, you must include the exact web address for the precise page that exhibits the cited information, as well as the date that you last accessed the information. A web citation such as ( is hopelessly vague and insufficient. The reader should be able to type in the web address and immediately see the source of the cited information. Please keep in mind that few internet sources are peer-reviewed and that you alone are responsible for the information cited in your project.

Archival materials are generally more difficult to reference. Follow the guidelines in the Michigan Technological University Archives & Copper Country Historical Collection Citation Guide, posted on D2L, for citing archival materials. Please choose several unique descriptors - such as a name, date, or title - for the inline citation. The reader should be able to locate the archives, describe archival materials, and provide all information necessary to retrieve archival materials from the entry in your bibliography.