Skip to main content
site header image

APA Style

A guide to APA formatting, in-text citation, and the References list

Article or Report

Often, in APA, you will have to combine multiple examples to make a correct citation. So for example, if you have a newspaper article with no author, combine both of those examples, etc. 

Key Elements  
One Author, With DOI Journal Article, No DOI
Two-Seven Authors Magazine Article
Eight or More Authors Newspaper Article
No Author Report

Key Elements

  1. Author (Last name, first and middle initial only)
  2. Publication date (Year, Month Day for Newspapers)
  3. Article title (no quotes, sentence case)
  4. Publication Title (italicized)
  5. Journal or Magazine: Volume(Issue Number)
  6. Page number(s)
  7. Online: DOI or Publication's Homepage URL (no period at the end)


One Author, with DOI if available (7.01.01)

On all article citations, include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available.  The DOI is like a digital thumbprint: its unique and permanent numbers and letters help identify it. It is typically on the first or last page of the article. It may also be listed in the CrossRef Database. If you are having trouble finding the DOI, ask a librarian.  If there is no DOI, see this example

Note that as of March 2017, CrossRef and APA recommend that DOIs be formatted as such: https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxx with no period at the end. But DOIs starting with http://dx.doi.org, or with just doi:10.xxxx/xxxxx, will also continue to work -- the https: simply makes it more secure and easier to be recognized as a functioning link. 

   Bueger comma C period (2013) period Practice comma pirates comma and Coast Guards colon The grand narrative of Somali piracy period Third World Quarterly comma 34(10) comma 1811-1827 period https colon//dx period doi period org/10 period1080/01436597 period 2013 period 851896

 


Two-Seven Authors (7.01)

List each author as they appear in the article. Use ampersand (&) rather than "and."

  Wenneker comma C period P period comma Wigbolus comma D period H period comma & Spears comma R period (2005) period Biased language use in stereotype maintenance colon The role of encoding and goals period Journal of Personality and Social Psychology comma 89(4) comma 504-516 period https colon//doi dot org /10 period1037/0022-3514 period89 period4 period504

 


Eight or More Authors (7.01.02)

List the first six authors, add an ellipses (...), and list the last author.

Alloy comma L period B period comma Bender comma R period E period comma Wagner comma C period A period comma Whitehouse comma W period G period comma Abramson comma L period Y period comma Hogan comma M period E period comma … Harmon-Jones comma E period (2009) period Bipolar spectrum-substance abuse co-occurrence colon Behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity and impulsiveness as shared personal vulnerabilities period Journal of Personality and Social Psychology comma 97(3) comma 549-565 period https colon //doi dot org/10 dot 1037/a0016061


No Author (7.01.9)

Begin with the article title.

Roane announcement set period (2009 comma September 13) period Knoxville News Sentinel comma p period B2 period


Journal Article, no DOI  (7.01.03)

Print 

 Roselle comma A period (2008) period Community college library practices in developmental education period Journal of Developmental Education comma 32(2) comma 24-32 period

Online, but no DOI

Give the publication's homepage URL (NOT the database where the article was retrieved).You may need to search the Internet or use Ulrich'sweb to find its homepage. No period at the end of the URL.

       Montgomery comma M period B period parenthesis 2009 parenthesis period Historical and comparative perspectives on a-prefixing in the English of Appalachia period American Speech comma 84parenthesis 1 parenthesis comma 5-26 period Retrieved from http colon//www dot dukeupress dot edu/americanspeech/


Magazine

Print (7.01.07)

Italicize the magazine title and volume number, but not the issue number in parentheses.  If a magazine has a month and/or date, you may include that.

Rodgers comma J period E period parenthesis 2009 comma January/February parenthesis period Guinea pig nation period Psychology Today comma 42 parenthesis 1 parenthesis comma 84-91 period

Online (7.01.08)

Include the magazine's homepage URL (NOT the database where you found it). Page numbers may be omitted if not available. 

Carscaddon comma L period & Harris comma C period S period parenthesis 2009 comma June 15 parenthesis period Working the social colon Twitter and Friendfeed period Library Journal comma 134parenthesis 11 parenthesis period Retrieved from http colon//www dot libraryjournal dot com


Newspaper

Print (7.01.10)

If an article appears on discontinuous pages, list each of the page numbers where it appears. For multiple pages, use "pp." If a magazine has a month and/or date, you may include that.

Hickman comma H period parenthesis 2009 comma September 10 parenthesis period Forum gives insight to candidates’ views period Knoxville News Sentinel comma pp period A1 comma A11 period

Online (7.01.11)

At the end, include the newspaper's homepage URL (NOT the database where it was retrieved). Page numbers may be omitted if not available. 

Hu comma W period parenthesis 2009 comma September 11 parenthesis period Foreign languages fall as schools look for cuts period The New York Times period Retrieved from http colon//www dot nytimes dot com


Report

After the report title, include the report number, publisher location, and publisher.

Corporate Author or Government Report (7.03.31)

U period S period Department of Health and Human Services comma National Institutes of Health comma National Heart comma Lung comma and Blood Institute period (2014) period Managing asthma colon A guide for schools (NIH Publication No period 14-2650) period Retrieved from https colon //www dot nhlbi dot nih dot gov/files/docs/resources/lung/NACI_ManagingAsthma-508%20FINAL dot pdf


Has Author (7.03.33, 7.03.34)

McKenzie comma D period (2009) period Impact assessments in finance and private sector development colon What have we learned and what should we learn question mark (Policy Research Working Paper 4944) period Retrieved from The World Bank Development Research Group website colon https colon //openknowledge dot worldbank dot org/bitstream/handle/10986/4137/WPS4944 dot pdf